The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • C. E. Bourgeois and W. Threlfall, “Mallophaga from three species of scoters (Anatidae)”, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 83, pp. 799 - 800, 1981.
  • Canada. Commission of Conservation. Committee on Fisheries, Game and Fur-Bearing Animals. 1916. Conservation of Fish, Birds and Game : Proceedings at a Meeting of the Committee, November 1 and 2, 1915. Toronto, Ontario : Methodist Book and Publishing House.; Facing page 98
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • G. B. Thompson, “An ectoparasite census of ducks and geese (Anatidae) in Uganda”, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 192 - 194, 1935.
  • G. M. Woodwell, Toxic substances and ecological cycles, Sci. Am. 216(3):24-31, from pp. 26-27 (March 1967).
  • Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • H. Milne and G. M. Dunnet, Standing crop, productivity and trophic relations of the fauna of the Ythan estuary. In: The Estuarine Environment, R. S. K. Barnes and J. Green, Eds. (Applied Science Publications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972), pp. 86-106, from
  • Johnson, K. P. and M. D. Sorenson. 1999. Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116(3):792–805.
  • K. P. Johnson, F. McKinney, and M. D. Sorenson, “Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, vol. 266, no. 1421, pp. 759 - 763, 1999.
  • Kear, J., ed. 2005. Ducks, Geese and Swans. Bird Families of the World XVI. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Livezey, B. C. 1995. Phylogeny and evolutionary ecology of modern seaducks (Anatidae: Mergini). Condor 97:233-255.
  • Livezey, B. C. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of geese and swans (Anseriformes: Anserinae), including selected fossil species. Syst. Biol. 45:415-450.
  • Madge, S. and H. Burn. 1988. Waterfowl: An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese, and Swans of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Madsen, J., T. Fox and J. Cracknell, eds. 1999. Goose Populations of the Western Palearctic. A review of Status and Distribution. Wetlands International Publication No. 48. Wetlands International, Wageningen, National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde.
  • Newcomb, Raymond Lee. 1882. Our Lost Explorers : the Narrative of the Jeannette Arctic Expedition, as related by the survors, and in the records and last journals of Lieutenant De Long. Hartford, CT : American Publishing Company; Page 317
  • P. Larson, J. E. Brittain, L. Lein, A. Lillehammer and K. Tangen, The lake ecosystem of Ovre Heimdalsvatn, Holarctic Ecology 1:304-320, from p. 311 (1978).
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 410 (1930).
  • S. W. Nixon and C. A. Oviatt, Ecology of a New England salt marsh, Ecol. Monog. 43:463-498, from p. 491 (1973).
  • S. W. Nixon and C. A. Oviatt, Ecology of a New England salt marsh, Ecol. Monogr. 43:463-498, from p. 491 (1973).
  • Scott, P. and M. Ogilvie. 1998. Collins Illustrated Checklist: Wildfowl of the World. Harper-Collins.
  • Soothill, E. and P. Whitehead. 1996. Wildfowl: A World Guide. London: Blandford.
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island, J. Ecol. 11:214-286, from p. 232 (1923).
  • W. Threlfall, C. E. Bourgeois, and G. A. Bain, “Mallophaga from some North American Anatidae”, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 81, pp. 327 - 328, 1979.
  • WoRMS (2014). Anatidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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