The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2003. "UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species" (On-line). Accessed November 14, 2003 at
  • Adams, E. P. (1899). Persistent nesting of the Anna’s Humminbird. Bulletin of the Cooper Ornithological Club. 28.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Campbell, B., E. Lack. 1985. A Dictionary of Birds. Vermillion: Buteo Books.
  • Dickinson, Edward C., ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd edition. 1039
  • Doucet SM; Meadows MG. 2009. Iridescence: a functional perspective. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 6: S115-S132.
  • Fowler, ME; Miller, RE. 2003. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
  • Gill, F. 1995. Ornithology, Second Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
  • Grant, K., V. Grant. 1968. Hummingbirds & Their Flowers. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Greenewalt CH; Brandt W; Friel DD. 1960. The iridescent colors of hummingbird feathers. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 104: 249-253.
  • Howell, S. 2002. Hummingbirds of North America, The Photographic Guide. San Diego: AP Natural World.
  • IUCN, 2002. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed September 19, 2003 at
  • Johnsgard, P. 1997. The Hummingbirds of North America, Second Edition. London: Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd., A & C Black.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
  • Payne, R. 2003. "Bird Families of the World" (On-line). Accessed September 19, 2003 at
  • Sargent, R., M. Sargent. 2001. Hummingbirds. Pp. 357-365 in C Elphick, J Dunning, D Sibley, eds. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Schuchmann, K. 1999. Family Trochilidae. J del Hoyo, A Elliott, S Jordi, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 5. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
  • Sibley, C., J. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and Classification of Birds, A study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Skutch, A., A. Singer. 1973. The Life of the Hummingbird. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
  • Smith ML; Yanega GM; Ruina A. 2011. Elastic instability model of rapid beak closure in hummingbirds. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 282(1): 41-51.
  • Smith RA. 2011. Hummingbirds catch flying bugs with the help of fast-closing beaks.
  • Stokes, D., L. Stokes. 1989. The Hummingbird Book. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Threatened and Endangered Species System, 2003. "U.S. Listed Vertebrate Animal Species Report by Taoxonomic Group" (On-line). Accessed November 14, 2003 at
  • Tyrrell, E., R. Tyrell. 1985. Hummingbirds, Their Life and Behavior. New York: Crown Publishers.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, date unknown. "Birds Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act" (On-line). Accessed November 14, 2003 at


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