The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Chantler, P. 2000. Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Chubb, A. L. 2004. Nuclear corroboration of DNA-DNA hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines: The phylogenetic utility of ZENK (ii). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (1): 128-139.
  • Cracraft, J., F. Keith Barker, M. J. Braun, J. Harshman, G. Dyke, J. Feinstein, S. Stanley, A. Cibois, P. Schikler, P. Beresford, J. García-Moreno, M. D. Sorenson, T. Yuri, and D. P. Mindell. 2004. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Modern Birds (Neornithes): Toward an Avian Tree of Life. Pp 468-489 in Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Fowler, ME; Miller, RE. 2003. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
  • Johansson, U. S., Parsons, T. J., Irestedt, M. and Ericson, P. G. P. 2001. Clades within the "higher land birds", evaluated by nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 39: 37-51.
  • Lee, P. L. M., D. H. Clayton, R. Griffiths, and R. D. M. Page. 1996. Does behavior reflect phylogeny in swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (14): 7091-7096.
  • Mayr, G. 2002. Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and allies). Journal Fur Ornithologie 143 (1): 82-97.
  • Mayr, G. 2003. Phylogeny of early Tertiary swifts and hummingbirds. Auk 120 (1): 145-151.
  • Price, J. J., K. P. Johnson, and D. H. Clayton. 2004. The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets. Journal of Avian Biology 35 (2): 135-143.
  • R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York
  • Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Swifts and Hummingbirds. Pages 391-401 in: Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Tobalske, BW; Warrick, DR; Clark, CJ; Powers, DR; Hedrick, TL; Hyder, GA; Biewener, AA. 2007. Three-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210: 2368-2382.
  • Warrick, DR; Tobalske, BW; Powers, DP. 2005. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature. 435(7045): 1094-1096.
  • WoRMS (2013). Apodiformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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