There are currently 17 described subfamilies of Crambidae. Currently there are almost 10,000 named species of Cramidae, although much of the diversity is undescribed.
Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical, Australian, Oceanic Island
Body setae on verrucae:
Body setae on chalazae:
Body setae on scoli:
Pairs of thoracic legs:
Larval Prothoracic L-group setae:
Larval abdomen description:
A1-A7: L2 anteroventral (sometimes ventral or posteroventral) of L1. A8 SV group unisetose (bisetose in known Cybalomiinae). A9 L group unisetose (bisetose in Acentropinae, Schoenobiinae). Anal shield: distance D1-D1 less than SD1-SD1. SD setae without chitinous rings.
Adult Abdomen Morphology
Female genitalia description:
Ovipositor lobes as described for the superfamily or sometimes reduced or with reduced setae, or heavily spinose, or elongate and strongly sclerotized or even bladelike. Such modifications often coupled with lengtheningor hypertrophy of the apophyses, presumably reflecting differences in oviposition habits.
Female pregenital sexual scales:
Female oviduct opening:
Female bursa ostium opening:
between S7 and venter 8
Female anterior apophyses originating:
originating from T8
Male pregenital sexual scales:
Male genitalia description:
Uncus primitively tapering, distally rounded or weakly bilobed, and with dorsal setae tending to be separated in lateral groups; in derived forms uncus variously spined, long and rodlike, beaklike or distally dilated, or alternatively strongly bifid, abbreviated, or virtually aborted. Gnathos often with posteriorly directed median element, this frequently dorsally denticulate; in some groups median element missing and lateral arms of separate or the whole structure rudimentary,or absent. Base of genitalia provided with weak to large and bushy tufts of variously shaped androconia, often forming a prominent anal tuft or anal brush; these tufts arising from various parts of the genitalia proper, especially from processes on the vinculum, but also from intersegmental membrane VIII-IX, and often from VIII sternite, which may have special support sclerites, the culcitae.
Sternum 5 gland:
Adult abdomen description:
The muscles of the male genitalia appear to have taxonomic importance, but they have been looked at in only a few representative forms (Kuznetsov & Sekolnikov 1979).
phallotheca and aedeagus (phallus)
Adult Thorax Morphology
Legs most often long and slender; in males often with androconial tufts and sometimes with structural distortions.
Forewing with R2 often closely apposed to or stalked with R3+4 beyond cell; R5 often curved and appoximated to R3+4, stalked wih it in many Crambinae and Schoenobiinae, and sporadically in other groups M1 from near anterior aangle of cell. M2, M3 and CuA1 from posterior angle of cell or near it, M2 and M3 sometimes stalked. CuP reduced to a fold or with its distal part developed as a weak tubular vein. 1A+2A strongly developed,usually ending on termen near tornus. 2A distally free or connected by a crossvein to 1A to form a closed cell, but hardly ever with a free portion extending beyond this cell as sometime occurs in Pyralidae. Hindwing with M2, M3, and CuA1 from posterior angle of cell or near it, often basally approximated, sometimes M2 and M3 stalked or even fused. CuP, 1A+2A, and 3A present, simple.
Wing coupling description:
Frenulum single in males, usually multiple in males.
Abdomen tympanum description:
Tympanal cases "open", i.e. with a wide anteromedial aperture; conjunctiva and tympanum not in the same plane, meeting at a distinct angle; tympanal ridge present; spinula typically present; scolopal swellings enlarged; in species so far studied, two of the four scolopal bodies differentiated into squamiform structures (Minet, 1985); praecinctorium present, simple or bifid.
Adult Head Morphology
Number of labial palp segments:
Labial palpus modification:
Porrect, obliquely ascending, or upturned in front of face
present, absent, minute
Number of maxillary palp segments:
from 3 to 4
Number of chaetosomata:
Well-developed, but in various groups reduced
Head vertex scaling:
Adult head description:
Head with frons various in shape-rounded, flat, conical, cylindrical, carinate, thorned, or inflated. Maxillary palpus usually shorter than labial, sometimes minute or absent, typically 3- or 4- segmented; often with distal scaling forming a flattened tuft, connecting profile of frons with that of dorsal scaling of labial palpus. Eye without macroscopic setae; normally large and globular, in diurnal forms sometimes reduced, then often bordered by a scaleless zone.
tympanal case opens anteromedially. conjunctiva and tympanum are not in the same plane. presence of a praecinctorium. 1 or 2 L setae on A9
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:58105
Specimens with Barcodes:55561
Species With Barcodes:4567
The Crambidae are the grass moth family of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are quite variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.
In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the ears called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe and Solis, in Kristensen (1999) retains the Crambidae as a full family.
- Water hyacinth moth Niphograpta albiguttalis, is used to control its host (Eichhornia crassipes), in Florida.
- Water veneer, Acentria ephemerella is a biocontrol agent used against Eurasian watermilfoil
- Bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis, of which the caterpillars are used for human consumption (see entomophagy).
- Mint moth Pyrausta aurata
Crambid larvae are typically stem borers in plants of the grass family. As this family contains many important crops, some Crambidae species achieve pest status. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is perhaps the best known - introduced to the USA in the early 1900s, it is now widespread in all but the westernmost states. Other pest species include:
- Chilo partellus, spotted stalk borer
- Chilo suppressalis, Asiatic rice borer
- Crambus spp., sod webworms
- Duponchelia fovealis
- Diatraea saccharalis, sugarcane borer
- Maruca spp., bean pod borers
- Scirpophaga innotata, rice white stemborer
- Diatraea grandiosella, southwestern corn borer
- Desmia maculalis, grape leaffolder
- subfamilia incertae sedis
- Exsilirarcha Salmon & Bradley, 1956
- Subfamily Acentropinae Stephens, 1836
- Subfamily Crambinae Latreille, 1810
- Subfamily Cybalomiinae Marion, 1955
- Subfamily Deuterophysa Warren, 1889
- Subfamily Evergestinae Marion, 1952
- Subfamily Glaphyriinae W. T. M. Forbes, 1923
- Subfamily Heliothelinae Amsel, 1961
- Subfamily Linostinae Amsel, 1956
- Linosta Möschler, 1882
- Subfamily Midilinae Munroe, 1958
- Subfamily Musotiminae Meyrick, 1884
- Subfamily Noordinae Minet, 1980
- Noorda Walker, 1859 (= Epinoorda Rebel, 1902)
- Subfamily Odontiinae Guenée, 1854
- Subfamily Pyraustinae Meyrick, 1890
- Subfamily Schoenobiinae Duponchel, 1846
- Subfamily Scopariinae Guenée, 1854
- Subfamily Spilomelinae Guenée, 1854
- Subfamily Wurthiinae Roepke, 1916
- Niphopyralis Hampson, 1893
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Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.). 1999. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
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