Overview

Brief Summary

Diversity

Diversity description:

There are currently 17 described subfamilies of Crambidae. Currently there are almost 10,000 named species of Cramidae, although much of the diversity is undescribed.

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Distribution

Geographical Distribution

Geographic Range:

Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical, Australian, Oceanic Island

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Physical Description

Morphology

Larvae Morphology

Secondary setae:

absent

Body setae on verrucae:

absent

Body setae on chalazae:

absent

Body setae on scoli:

absent

Pairs of thoracic legs:

from 3

Larval Prothoracic L-group setae:

bisetose

Larval abdomen description:

A1-A7: L2 anteroventral (sometimes ventral or posteroventral) of L1. A8 SV group unisetose (bisetose in known Cybalomiinae). A9 L group unisetose (bisetose in Acentropinae, Schoenobiinae). Anal shield: distance D1-D1 less than SD1-SD1. SD setae without chitinous rings.

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Adult Abdomen Morphology

Reproductive system:

Ditrysian

Oviscapt (ovipositor):

non-piercing

Female genitalia description:

Ovipositor lobes as described for the superfamily or sometimes reduced or with reduced setae, or heavily spinose, or elongate and strongly sclerotized or even bladelike. Such modifications often coupled with lengtheningor hypertrophy of the apophyses, presumably reflecting differences in oviposition habits.

Female pregenital sexual scales:

absent

Female oviduct opening:

below anus

Female bursa ostium opening:

between S7 and venter 8

Female anterior apophyses originating:

originating from T8

Male coremata:

present

Male pregenital sexual scales:

absent

Male genitalia description:

Uncus primitively tapering, distally rounded or weakly bilobed, and with dorsal setae tending to be separated in lateral groups; in derived forms uncus variously spined, long and rodlike, beaklike or distally dilated, or alternatively strongly bifid, abbreviated, or virtually aborted. Gnathos often with posteriorly directed median element, this frequently dorsally denticulate; in some groups median element missing and lateral arms of separate or the whole structure rudimentary,or absent. Base of genitalia provided with weak to large and bushy tufts of variously shaped androconia, often forming a prominent anal tuft or anal brush; these tufts arising from various parts of the genitalia proper, especially from processes on the vinculum, but also from intersegmental membrane VIII-IX, and often from VIII sternite, which may have special support sclerites, the culcitae.

Sternum 5:

without fenestra

Sternum 5 gland:

absent

Adult abdomen description:

The muscles of the male genitalia appear to have taxonomic importance, but they have been looked at in only a few representative forms (Kuznetsov & Sekolnikov 1979).

Male has:

phallotheca and aedeagus (phallus)

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Adult Thorax Morphology

Scale tufts:

present

Epiphysis:

present

Leg description:

Legs most often long and slender; in males often with androconial tufts and sometimes with structural distortions.

Wing venation??description:

Forewing with R2 often closely apposed to or stalked with R3+4 beyond cell; R5 often curved and appoximated to R3+4, stalked wih it in many Crambinae and Schoenobiinae, and sporadically in other groups M1 from near anterior aangle of cell. M2, M3 and CuA1 from posterior angle of cell or near it, M2 and M3 sometimes stalked. CuP reduced to a fold or with its distal part developed as a weak tubular vein. 1A+2A strongly developed,usually ending on termen near tornus. 2A distally free or connected by a crossvein to 1A to form a closed cell, but hardly ever with a free portion extending beyond this cell as sometime occurs in Pyralidae. Hindwing with M2, M3, and CuA1 from posterior angle of cell or near it, often basally approximated, sometimes M2 and M3 stalked or even fused. CuP, 1A+2A, and 3A present, simple.

Wing coupling:

with frenulum

Wing coupling description:

Frenulum single in males, usually multiple in males.

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Tympanum Morphology

Counter-tympanum:

absent

Abdomen tympanum:

present

Abdomen tympanum description:

Tympanal cases "open", i.e. with a wide anteromedial aperture; conjunctiva and tympanum not in the same plane, meeting at a distinct angle; tympanal ridge present; spinula typically present; scolopal swellings enlarged; in species so far studied, two of the four scolopal bodies differentiated into squamiform structures (Minet, 1985); praecinctorium present, simple or bifid.

Thorax tympanum:

absent

Palp tympanum:

absent

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Adult Head Morphology

Ocelli:

present

Eyes:

smooth

Labial palpus:

porrect, upcurved

Number of labial palp segments:

from 3

Labial palpus modification:

Porrect, obliquely ascending, or upturned in front of face

Maxillary palpus:

present, absent, minute

Number of maxillary palp segments:

from 3 to 4

Number of chaetosomata:

from 2

Proboscis:

present, reduced

Proboscis description:

Well-developed, but in various groups reduced

Mandibles:

absent

Head vertex scaling:

normal

Female antennae:

filiform

Male antennae:

filiform

Adult head description:

Head with frons various in shape-rounded, flat, conical, cylindrical, carinate, thorned, or inflated. Maxillary palpus usually shorter than labial, sometimes minute or absent, typically 3- or 4- segmented; often with distal scaling forming a flattened tuft, connecting profile of frons with that of dorsal scaling of labial palpus. Eye without macroscopic setae; normally large and globular, in diurnal forms sometimes reduced, then often bordered by a scaleless zone.

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Diagnostic Description

Synapomorphies

Apomorphies:

tympanal case opens anteromedially.  conjunctiva and tympanum are not in the same plane.  presence of a praecinctorium.  1 or 2 L setae on A9

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:64549
Specimens with Sequences:58105
Specimens with Barcodes:55561
Species:5171
Species With Barcodes:4567
Public Records:21099
Public Species:2195
Public BINs:2398
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Crambidae

The Crambidae are the grass moth family of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are quite variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.

In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the ears called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe and Solis, in Kristensen (1999) retains the Crambidae as a full family.

Useful crambids[edit]

Harmless crambids[edit]

Harmful crambids[edit]

Crambid larvae are typically stem borers in plants of the grass family. As this family contains many important crops, some Crambidae species achieve pest status. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is perhaps the best known - introduced to the USA in the early 1900s, it is now widespread in all but the westernmost states. Other pest species include:

Gallery[edit]


Taxonomy[edit]

References[edit]

Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.). 1999. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

See also[edit]

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