Scientists aim to describe a single 'tree of life' that reflects the evolutionary relationships of living things. However, evolutionary relationships are a matter of ongoing discovery, and there are different opinions about how living things should be grouped and named. EOL reflects these differences by supporting several different scientific 'classifications'. Some species have been named more than once. Such duplicates are listed under synonyms. EOL also provides support for common names which may vary across regions as well as languages.

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Preferred marks the preferred classification for this taxon.

Recognized By Rank Classification
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013
view in classification
Family
South African Vertebrates
view in classification
Family
Anage Data Family
Animal Diversity Web Descriptions Family
AskNature Family
Avibase - IOC World Bird Names (2011)
view in classification
Family
BOLDS resource for higher-level taxa
BOLDS resource for higher-level taxa
BOLDS images II Family
BOLDS resource for species-level taxa Family
Biopix Family
Bird Life History Family
Birds resource Family
Clements Checklist resource
view in classification
Family
Number of DNA and specimen records in GGBN Family
  • Spheniscidae
EOL Group on Flickr Family
EOL Group on Flickr Family
EOL Group on Flickr Family
EOL Metrics Family
  • Spheniscidae
Environments Family
Environments Family
Environments Family
Freshwater and Marine Image Bank, University Libraries, U Washington
Global Biotic Interactions
  • Spheniscidae
IABIN resource Family
IUCN Red List Family
IUCN Red List
view in classification
Family
BioLib.cz Import
BioLib.cz Import Family
Initial Tree of Life web Import
  • Spheniscidae
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
view in classification
Family
Library of Alexandria
Library of Alexandria Family
Library of Alexandria Family
MCZ resource Family
NCBI Taxonomy
view in classification
Family
Number of pages in BHL Family
  • Spheniscidae
Number of records in GBIF Family
  • Spheniscidae
Number of sequences in GenBank Family
  • Spheniscidae
Number of specimens with sequence in BOLDS Family
  • Spheniscidae
OBIS Environmental Information
  • Spheniscidae
OBIS depth range resource Family
Paleo DB Families
  • Spheniscidae
Paleobiology Database
view in classification
Family
SPIRE resource
  • Spheniscidae
AnAge database Family
Monthly ARKive text import Family
IUCN Structured Data Family
Symonds and Tattersall, 2010 Family
Tree of Life web project
  • Spheniscidae Bonaparte 1831
Undersea Production test 2 Family
World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)
view in classification
Family
Wikimedia Commons Genus
Wikimedia Commons Family
Wikimedia Commons
Wikipedia Family
Wikipedia
iNaturalist Images Family
iSpot southern Africa Family
xeno-canto Bird Sounds Family

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