The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • B. C. Patten and J. T. Finn, Systems approach to continental shelf ecosystems. In: Theoretical Systems Ecology, E. Halfon, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1979) pp. 183-212 from p. 202.
  • Baker, A. J., S. L. Pereira, O. P. Haddrath, and K.-A. Edge. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273(1582):11-17.
  • Bertelli, S., and N. P. Giannini. 2005. A phylogeny of extant penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) combining morphology and mitochondrial sequences. Cladistics 21: 209-239.
  • Christidis, L. and W. Boles. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
  • Clarke, J. A., E. B. Olivero, and P. Puerta. 2003. Description of the earliest fossil penguin from South America and first Paleogene vertebrate locality of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. American Museum Novitates 3423:1-18.
  • Dann, P., I. Norman, and P. Reilly, eds. 1995. The Penguins: Ecology and Management. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney.
  • Davis, L. S. and J. Darby, eds. 1990. Penguin Biology. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Dickinson, Edward C., ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd edition. 1039
  • G. A. Knox, Antarctic marine ecosystems. In: Antarctic Ecology, M. W. Holdgate, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1970) 1:69-96, from p. 87.
  • Giannini, N. P., and S. Bertelli. 2004. Phylogeny of extant penguins based on integumentary and breeding characters. The Auk 121: 422-434.
  • Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • Grant, W. S., D. C. Duffy, and R. W. Leslie. 1994. Allozyme phylogeny of Spheniscus penguins. The Auk 111: 716-270.
  • Marchant, S. and P. J. Higgins, eds. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol 1. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
  • Miller, R. E. 1978. Zoo and wild animal medicine. W. B. Saunders Philadelphia.
  • Müller-Schwarze, D. 1984. The behavior of penguins: adapted to ice and tropics. State University of New York Press, Albany.
  • Nelson, J. B. 2006. Pelicans, Cormorants, and Their Relatives: The Pelecaniformes. Bird Families of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.
  • O’Hara, R. J. 1989. An estimate of the phylogeny of the living penguins (Aves: Spheniscidae). Am. Zool. 29, 11A.
  • Raikow, R. J., L. Bicanovsky, and A. H. Bledsoe. 1988. Forelimb joint mobility and the evolution of wing-propelled diving in birds. Auk 105:446-451.
  • Reilly, P. 1994. Penguins of the World. Oxford University Press.
  • Schreiweis, D. O. 1982. A comparative study of the appendicular musculature of penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 341:1-46.
  • Simpson, G. G. 1946. Fossil Penguins. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 87, 1–100.
  • Simpson, G. G. 1972. Conspectus of Patagonian fossil penguins. Am. Mus. Nov. 2488, 1–37.
  • Simpson, G. G. 1976. Penguins: Past and Present, Here and There. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Stonehouse, B. 1975. The biology of penguins. University Park Press, Baltimore.
  • Thomas DB; Ksepka DT; Fordyce RE. 2011. Penguin heat-retention structures evolved in a greenhouse Earth. Biology Letters. 7: 461–464.
  • Tributsch, H. 1984. How life learned to live. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 218 p.
  • Williams, T. D. 1995. The Penguins. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Woehler, E. J. 1993. The Distribution and Abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic Penguins. University Printing Services, Cambridge.
  • Zusi, R. L. 1975. An interpretation of skull structure in penguins. In: Stonehouse, B. (Ed.), The Biology of Penguins. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD, pp. 59–84.


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