Overview

Brief Summary

Diversity

Diversity description:

Following Common (1990), Minet (1991) and Nielsen and Common (1991, Edwards et al. (1999), comprises 2 families: Cossidae and Dudgeoneidae

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Distribution

Geographical Distribution

Geographic Range:

Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical, Australian, Oceanic Island

Geographic Range description:

World-wide distribution with the exception of New Zealand and Antarctica.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Adult Abdomen Morphology

Reproductive system:

Ditrysian

Oviscapt (ovipositor):

non-piercing

Female genitalia description:

Variable see families and subfamilies descriptions

Female bursa ostium opening:

on venter 8

Female anterior apophyses originating:

originating from T8, from venter 8

Male genitalia description:

See families and subfamilies descriptions.

Adult abdomen description:

S2 of Tortricoid type.

Male has:

only phallotheca

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Adult Thorax Morphology

Scale tufts:

present

Epiphysis:

present

Adult thorax description:

Mesophragma long, bilobed, reaching the thoraco-abdominal articulation, metafurcal stem short.

Forelegs:

normal

Number of tibial spurs foreleg:

from 0

Number of tibial spurs midleg:

from 2

Number of tibial spurs hindleg:

from 2 to 4

Leg description:

Legs normal, in Cossinae hind tibia and first tarsomere inflated.

Forewing length from mid-dorsum to apex (mm):

from 9 mm to 236 mm

Wing venation??description:

M present and usually forked in cell of both wings; fore wing usually with chorda in cell; 1 A + 2 A in fore wing deeply forked at base, fork shorter in hind wing; 3 A present in hindwing

Wing venation:

heteroneurous

Forewing cell veins:

forked

Forewing chorda:

areole, present

Number of Rs veins in forewing:

from 5

Number of M veins in forewing:

from 3

Forewing upper surface with microtrichia:

absent

Hindwing cell vein:

forked

Wing coupling:

with frenulum

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Tympanum Morphology

Abdomen tympanum:

present

Abdomen tympanum description:

Abdominal tympanum present only in Dudgeoneidae as a modification of the apodemes on SIT

Thorax tympanum:

absent

Palp tympanum:

absent

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Adult Head Morphology

Ocelli:

present, absent

Eyes:

smooth

Maxillary palpus:

minute

Number of maxillary palp segments:

from 1 to 4

Number of chaetosomata:

from 0

Proboscis:

absent, reduced

Proboscis texture:

scaled

Mandibles:

absent

Head vertex scaling:

normal

Female antennae:

bipectinate, filiform, pectinate, serrate

Male antennae:

bipectinate, filiform, pectinate, serrate

Antennal sensillum:

Antennal sensillum present

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Diagnostic Description

Synapomorphies

Apomorphies:

The Cossidae and Dudgeoneidae are phenetically similar but none of the suggested apomorphies for the two families have been confirmed.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Adult Behavior

Adult behavior:

diurnal, nocturnal, crepuscular

Adult behavior:

For the most part resting posture is with the wings folded along the abdomen. Some Hypoptinae hung from branches upside-down and extrude the abdomen as in figure.

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Reproduction

Life History: Adults

Adult food items include:

Sap from woody stems

Adult food habits description:

Wood borers in live trees and shrubs.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Systematic and taxonomic history

Systematic and taxonomic history:

A relatively plesiomorphic wing venation with the M-stem forked in both wings in most cossoids suggests that they are among the earliest branches of the Apoditrysia.

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