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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This snake occurs in the premontane and lower montane elevations of Costa Rica and western Panama (Savage 2002). It has been also reported in the Panamanian lowlands (Jaramillo et al. 2010) The species has an elevation range from 500 to 2,500 meters (Wilson et al. 2010).
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Continent: Middle-America
Distribution: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama  
Type locality: Veragua and Volcán Barba, Costa Rica.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat includes relatively undisturbed humid forests and plantations from the lowlands to lower montane elevations. The adults of this species are arboreal, whereas the juveniles live on the forest floor where they prey on anoles and frogs (Savage 2002).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 12.5 years (captivity)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bothriechis lateralis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Acosta Chaves, V., Batista, A., García Rodríguez, A., Saborío, G. & Vargas Álvarez, J.

Reviewer/s
Bowles, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern because of the large range, relatively high abundance, numerous collection sites, and lack of major threats.
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Population

Population
This fairly common species is represented by many collection sites.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Threats include direct killing by humans.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
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Wikipedia

Bothriechis lateralis

Common names: side-striped palm-pit viper[3] side-striped palm viper,[4] more.

Bothriechis lateralis is a venomous pit viper species found in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama.[2] No subspecies are currently recognized.[5]

Description[edit]

Adult specimens may exceed 100 centimetres (39 in), but are usually less than 80 centimetres (31 in) in length. These are relatively slender snakes and have a prehensile tail.[3]

B. lateralis

The color pattern consists of an emerald green to bluish green ground color, overlaid with a series of yellow alternating paravertebral vertical bars. Some of the scales adjacent to the yellow in this pattern may be blue or black-tipped. The belly is a uniform yellowing-green, bordered on either side by a pale yellow stripe running along the lower portion of the paraventral scales and the extreme lateral part of the ventral scales. The head is uniformly green on top and a blue or blue-gray postocular stripe may be present. If a postocular stripe is present, it is weakly defined, especially in large adults. The iris is yellow.[3][6]

Juvenile specimens are usually brown with dark brown markings on the head, bronze irises, postocular stripes, paravertebral makings that are edged with yellow, and a tail tip that is yellow or chartreuse. Captive juveniles retain this color pattern for about six months, after which the ground color starts to become a dull lime green and the yellow edges of the paravertebral vertical bars more prominent. It is thought that the shift to adult coloration takes about 18–24 months to complete.[3]

Like many green snakes, captive adults tend to become blue over time, although blue specimens are sometimes found in the wild.[3]

Common names[edit]

Side-striped palm-pitviper,[3] side-striped palm viper,[4] green palm viper,[7] yellow-lined palm viper.[6]

Geographic range[edit]

Found in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama, including the Cordillera de Tilarán, the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera de Talamanca to the provinces of Chiriquí Province and Veraguas. Occurs at 850–980 m altitude. The type locality is listed as "Costa Rica vom Vulcan Barbo [Volcán Barba] ... und .. Veragua" [Panama].[2]

Habitat[edit]

Occurs in lower montane forest, lower montane wet forest, and lower montane rainforest. Although this species is able to survive is some areas that have been altered for agricultural purposes, such as coffee plantations, it seems they are slowly disappearing from these places. On the other hand, it is common in some protected areas, where populations appear to be doing quite well.[3]

Behavior[edit]

This is an arboreal species that spends its time in the thick foliage of forest trees and shrubbery. It is often found at the base of palm fronds. These snakes prefer to remain coiled and still, relying on their camouflage to avoid detection, rather than defending themselves aggressively. However, they will strike quickly if touched.[6]

Feeding[edit]

The prehensile tail is not only used as an anchor when resting, but also when it strikes out to grasp its prey, which consists of small birds, rodents, lizards and frogs.[6]

Venom[edit]

Bites can be serious, but fatalities are rare.[7] A polyvalent antivenin that covers this species is produced by the Instituto Clodomiro in Costa Rica.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/203658/0
  2. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Campbell JA, Lamar WW (2004). The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. plate 1500. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2. 
  4. ^ a b Bothriechis lateralis at Herps of Panama. Accessed 27 November 2006.
  5. ^ "Bothriechis lateralis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 November 2006. 
  6. ^ a b c d Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  7. ^ a b Green Palm Viper (Bothriechis lateralis) at Cloud Forest Alive. Accessed 27 November 2006.
  8. ^ Bothriechis lateralis at Munich AntiVenom INdex. Accessed 27 November 2006.

External links[edit]

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