Chrysopelea paradisi is one of five species of tropical lowland tree snakes of southern and southeast Asia that together comprise the genus Chrysopelea, the "flying snakes". Chrysopelea snakes are on the order of 0.6–1.2 m in length, with a body mass ranging from tens to a few hundred grams.
Chrysopelea snakes are best known for their remarkable gliding abilities. At least four of the five species are known to be capable of gliding (according to Socha , gliding has been studied under experimental conditions in C. ornata, C. paradisi, and C. pelias; C. rhodopleuron, which occurs in Sulawesi and the Moluccas, has also been observed to glide, but the gliding abilities of the Sri Lankan endemic C. taprobanica are unknown).
Chrysopelea “flying” snakes are the only limbless animals that glide through air. These snakes can actively launch by jumping, maintain a stable glide path, maneuver, and safely land without injury. As the snake becomes airborne, the body flattens sequentially from head to vent, forming a cross-sectional shape that is roughly triangular, with a flat surface and lateral ‘‘lips’’ that protrude ventrally on each side of the body; these may diminish toward the vent. A glide trajectory is initiated with the snake falling at a steep angle. As the snake rotates in the pitch axis, it forms a wide ‘‘S’’ shape and begins undulating in a complex three dimensional pattern, with the body angled upward relative to the glide path. The head moves side-to-side, sending traveling waves posteriorly toward the tail, while the body (most prominently, the posterior end) oscillates in the vertical axis. These active movements while gliding are substantially different and more dynamic than those used by any other animal glider. As the snake gains forward speed, the glide path becomes less steep, reaching minimally recorded glide angles of 138. In general, smaller snakes appear to be more proficient gliders. Morphologically, Chrysopelea appear to be typical snakes, with no special appendages, skin flaps, or other features such as are used by other flying animals. Instead, the snake undergoes aerial locomotion by using its entire body as a flattened, moving wing, constantly reconfiguring it throughout flight.
(Socha 2011 and references therein)
- Socha, J.J. 2011. Gliding Flight in Chrysopelea: Turning a Snake into a Wing. Integrative and Comparative Biology 51(6): 969-982.
Luzon and Visayan (central) Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complexes (PAIC; Brown and Diesmos, 2002) as well as the Sulu Archipelago.
This is a widely distributed species of snake, currently recognized to occur in Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and the Philippine islands. In the Philippines this species has been documented to occur in the Sulu Archipelago, as well as on the islands of Negros, Panay, and Luzon.
Distribution: Thailand (incl. Phuket) Indonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Java, Mentawai Archipelago, Natuna Archipelago, Nias, Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, We, Borneo, Sulawesi); Brunei Darussalam; India (Andaman Islands); Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia); Myanmar (Burma) Philippine Islands (including Sulu Archipelago, Negros Oriental, Panay, Luzon); Singapore celebensis: Indonesia (Sulawesi). variabilis: Philippine Islands (including Sulu Archipelago)
Type locality: Java
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
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Paradise tree snake or Paradise flying snake, Chrysopelea paradisi, is a species of snake found in southeastern Asia. It can, like all species of its genus Chrysopelea, glide by stretching the body into a flattened strip using its ribs. It is mostly found in moist forests and can cover a horizontal distance of about 100 metres in a glide from the top of a tree. Slow motion photography shows an undulation of the snake's body in flight while the head remains relatively stable, suggesting controlled flight. They are mildly venomous with rear fangs and also can constrict their prey, which consists of mostly lizards and bats.
Thailand (incl. Phuket), Indonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Java, Mentawai Archipelago, Natuna Archipelago, Nias, Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, We, Borneo, Sulawesi), Brunei Darussalam; India (Andaman Islands), Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia); Myanmar (Burma); Philippine Islands (including Sulu Archipelago, Negros Oriental, Panay, Luzon); Singapore; Race celebensis: Indonesia (Sulawesi).
Race variabilis: Philippine Islands (including Sulu Archipelago)
- Boie, F. 1827 Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis van Oken, Jena, 20: 508–566.
- Data related to Chrysopelea paradisi at Wikispecies
- Media related to Chrysopelea paradisi at Wikimedia Commons
- Chrysopelea paradisi at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database
- Flying snake home page by Jake Socha
- C. paradisi at Thailand Snakes.
- Flying Snake Video w/additional info.
- Research related article.
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