Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The species' range extends from Oregon and Idaho in the United States, to southern Baja California, Sinaloa, and southern Coahuila in Mexico; west to California, east to Colorado and Texas (Stebbins 2003). The subspecies marmoratus (which is regarded as a distinct species by some authorities) ranges from southern New Mexico and southern and western Texas south through eastern Chihuahua and southern Coahuila.
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Continent: Middle-America North-America
Distribution: USA,  Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas)  aethiops: S Sonora and adjacent islands (Tiburón, San Esteban).
Type locality: Hermosillo, Sonora.  bacatus:
Type locality: San Pedro Nolasco Island, Sonora (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950).  canus: Sal Si Puedes Island and north and South San Lorenzo Islands.
Type locality: Sal Si Puedes Island, Gulf of California, Baja California.  catalinensis:
Type locality: Santa Catalina Island, Baja California.  celeripes:
Type locality: San José Island, Baja California.  dickersonae: Mexico, Baja California Norte;
Type locality: Isla Partida, near Angel de la Guardia Island, Gulf of California. Holotype: CAS 49154.  gracilis: E California in Colorado River Valley, S Arizona south of the plateau, SW New Mexico, N Sonora.
Type locality: “Desert of Colorado”. Restricted to Yuma, Arizona (SMITH & TAYLOR 1950).  martyris:
Type locality: San Pedro Mártir Island, Gulf of California, Baja California.  multiscutatus: USA (coastal southern California), Mexico (Baja California).
Type locality: Cedros Island, Baja California.  pulcher:
Type locality: Mexico: 1.2 mi NW Carrillo, Chihuahua; HOLOTYPE: UIMNH 43762; P. S. Chrapliwy and K. L. Williams; August 1, 1958.  reticuloriens: Nuevo Leon  rubidus: Southern third of Baja California, south of San Marcos Island, including adjacent islands in the Gulf and off the western edge of the peninsula (Carmen, Santa Margarita, Magdalena Islands).
Type locality: Santa Margarita Island, Baja California.  stejnegeri: coastal southern California.
Type locality: Ensenada, Baja California.  tigris: S Idaho, SE Oregon south through W Utah and SE California to NE Baja California, NW Sonora.
Type locality: “Valley of the Great Salt Lake”, Utah. Restricted to Salt Lake City, Utah.  variolosus: Nuevo Leon
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Physical Description

Type Information

Lectotype; Syntype for Aspidoscelis tigris aethiops
Catalog Number: USNM 64245
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Female; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  • Lectotype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.; Syntype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Aspidoscelis tigris aethiops
Catalog Number: USNM 64244
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  • Paralectotype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.; Syntype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Aspidoscelis tigris aethiops
Catalog Number: USNM 64243
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  • Paralectotype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.; Syntype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paralectotype; Syntype for Aspidoscelis tigris aethiops
Catalog Number: USNM 64241
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  • Paralectotype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.; Syntype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paralectotype; Syntype for Aspidoscelis tigris aethiops
Catalog Number: USNM 64240
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1887
Locality: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  • Paralectotype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.; Syntype: Maslin, T. P. & Secoy, D. M. 1986. Contributions in Zoology, University of Colorado Museum. (1): 36.; Cope, E. D. 1900. Report of the United States National Museum for 1898. 582.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Aspidoscelis tigris aethiops
Catalog Number: USNM 40042
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
  • Holotype: Burger, W. L. 1950. Natural History Miscellanea, The Chicago Academy of Sciences. (65): 2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat includes deserts and semi-arid shrublands, usually in areas with sparse vegetation; also woodland, open dry forest, and riparian growth. Soil may be firm, sandy, or rocky. Lizards seek shelter in underground burrows (dug by rodent or lizard) or under surface objects. Eggs are laid in soil/underground.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 7.8 years (wild)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Hammerson, G.A., Frost, D.R. & Santos-Barrera, G.

Reviewer/s
Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large and relatively stable extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size. No major threats are known. Subspecies marmoratus is considered to be a distinct species by some authorities; as such, it also is Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is represented by hundreds of occurrences or subpopulations. The total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 1,000,000. This is a common lizard in most of its range. The extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are relatively stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats have been identified.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Many occurrences are in national parks and monuments and other protected areas. No direct conservation measures are currently needed for this species as a whole.
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Wikipedia

Western whiptail

The western whiptail (Aspidoscelis tigris [Baird and Girard, 1852]) is a small lizard (adults average 25 to 35 cm - about a foot - in length) that ranges throughout most of the southwestern United States. Most of its populations appear stable, and is not listed as endangered in any of the states comprising its range. It lives in a wide variety of habitats, including deserts and semiarid shrubland, usually in areas with sparse vegetation; also woodland, open dry forest, and riparian growth. It lives in burrows. Major differences between this species and the Checkered Whiptail (Aspidoscelis tesselata) include the lack of enlarged scales anterior to the gular fold and the presence of enlarged antebatrachial scales. It was previously known under Cnemidophorus tigris, until phylogenetic analyses concluded that the genus Cnemidophorus was polyphyletic. Since it does not migrate, a number of forms have developed in different regions, several of which have been given sub-specific names - for example the California Whiptail, Aspidoscelis tigris munda.

An excellent, well-documented site for information on this and other American species is http://www.natureserve.org. The specific home page for the species is http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/servlet/NatureServe?searchName=Cnemidophorus+tigris .


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