Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The mugger is a highly social species that communicates through visual and audible signals, has a dominance hierarchy and exhibits territoriality. Males thrash their tails and lift their snouts to establish territories and gain dominance before courtship and mating. One month after mating, between February and April, the female lays 10 – 48 eggs in a nest site that she returns to every year for much of her life. After 55 – 75 days of incubation, the eggs hatch and the hatchlings are carried to water by the female and sometimes even the male (5). The sex of the hatchlings is determined by the temperature at which they incubate. Males result from eggs incubated at 32.5 ºC and females result from eggs incubated either above or below 32.5 ºC (2). The juvenile muggers remain in the territory for up to a year. They reach sexual maturity at six years (5). Muggers consume crustaceans, insects and small fish when young, and move on to a diet of fish, frogs, crustaceans, birds, monkeys and squirrels in adulthood (2) (5).
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Description

The broad snout of the mugger makes it look more like an alligator than a crocodile, but the large and visible fourth tooth indicates that it is a true crocodile. The head is flat with the eyes, ears and nostrils all on the top to allow the mugger to submerge the rest of the body, but still keep these sensory organs above the water. The eye is protected by a clear third eyelid for underwater vision, and the windpipe can be covered with a flap of skin to allow the crocodile to attack underwater without letting water into the lungs. The mugger has webbed feet, but these are not used in swimming, as they are tucked against the body whilst the flat tail propels the mugger through the water (3). Juveniles are light tan in colour with black cross-banding on the body and tail but this fades with age as the body becomes grey to brown (2). Males are larger than females (3).
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Comprehensive Description

Brief

Fresh water crocodile with relatively broad and heavy snout. Grey brown adults with 16-17 dorsal scales on trunk. Mainly feeds on smaller animals ranging from insects to smaller mammals
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Distribution

The mugger is found primarily on the Indian subcontinent and extends into Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native ); indian ocean (Native )

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"Eastern Iran to Pakisthan , Widespread in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Srilanka"
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Historic Range:
India, Pakistan, Iran, Bangladesh

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Historic Range:
Sri Lanka

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Continent: Near-East Asia
Distribution: Bangladesh, Iran, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, possibly areas of Indochina  
Type locality: Mainland India; restricted to Ganges by Lesson (1834: 305)
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Range

The mugger is found in India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It was found in Bangladesh, but is now thought to be extinct there (5).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Muggers are medium to large crocodiles, reaching 4 to 5 meters in length. Like all crocodiles, they have an elongate, robust skull and jaw musculature. They have the broadest snout of any living member of Crocodylus.

Average length: 4-5 m.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

This species is not only found in freshwater lakes, ponds, and marshes, but it has adapted well to reserviors, irrigation canals, human-made ponds, and even recently in coastal saltwater lagoons. The mugger likes relatively shallow water, no deeper than 5m, and avoids fast-flowing rivers. The mugger is also known to bury itself into mud to escape the searing heat of India during the dry season.

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in freshwater habitats including, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, hill streams, village ponds and man made tanks. It may also be found in coastal saltwater lagoons. This species is a hole-nesting species.

The Mugger is a hole-nesting species, with egg-laying taking place during the annual dry season. Females become sexually mature at approximately 1.8-2 m, and lay 25-30 eggs (Whitaker and Whitaker 1989). Nests are located in a wide variety of habitats, and females have even been known to nest at the opening of, or inside, their burrow (B.C. Choudhury pers. comm.). In captivity, some Muggers are known to lay two clutches in a single year (Whitaker and Whitaker 1984), but this has not been observed in the wild. Incubation is relatively short, typically lasting 55-75 days (Whitaker 1987). Whitaker and Whitaker (1989) provide a good review of the behaviour and ecology of this species.

Like a number of other crocodilians, C. palustris is known to dig burrows. Whitaker and Whitaker (1984) referred to Mugger burrows in Sri Lanka and India (Gujarat and South India) and noted that yearling, sub-adult and adult Mugger all dig burrows. In Iran they are sometimes known to dig two burrows close to each other, which may be used by one or more crocodiles (Mobaraki 2002). These burrows are presumably utilized as an effective refuge from hot daytime ambient temperatures. These burrows play a critical role in the survival of crocodiles living in harsh environments (Whitaker et al. 2007), allowing them to avoid exposure to excessively low and high temperatures (<5ºC and >38ºC respectively) for long periods of time, which may be lethal (Lang 1987). Mugger are known to undertake long-distance overland treks in Gir (India) (Whitaker 1977), Sri Lanka (Whitaker and Whitaker 1979) and Iran (Mobaraki and Abtin 2007). Some Muggers are killed while crossing roads in Iran (Mobaraki and Abtin 2007).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

Fresh Water
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Inhabits freshwater lakes, ponds and marshes, and may also be found in reservoirs, irrigation canals, human-made ponds and even coastal saltwater lagoons. The mugger prefers fairly shallow, calm waters (5).
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Trophic Strategy

The mugger is mostly carnivorous with a diet consisting mainly of fish, frogs, crustaceans, birds, mammals, and occasionally various monkeys and squirrels.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Adult muggers are long lived (20-40+ years), and have a longer than average reproductive length as well (10-30+ years).

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
20 to 40 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
28.4 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 31.5 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

This species of crocodile is a hole-nesting species. Once the female finds a suitable site to dig her nesting hole, it is usually utilized for most or all of her breeding years. Approximately one month after mating occurs, the eggs are deposited by the female into the nesting hole she has formed. This takes place in February-April and consists of an average 28 (10-48 range) eggs per clutch. The mugger has been known to lay two clutches in one year while being kept in captivity, but little is known about the individuals in the wild. The incubation period is relatively short, 55-75 days. When the eggs finally hatch, they are transported by the mother and sometimes even the father to nearby water. Young crocodiles remain in loosely organized groups with the adults for up to one year before dispersing.

Females reach sexual maturity at about 6 years old, from 1.7 to 2 meters in length. Males reach sexual maturity at around 10 years old, when they have reached lengths of 2.6 meters.

Breeding interval: Muggers breed once each year.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs from February to April.

Range number of offspring: 10 to 48.

Average number of offspring: 28.

Range gestation period: 55 to 75 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Crocodylus palustris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crocodylus palustris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

In the past (1950s-1960s), the main source of threat to Crocodylus palustris was illegal skin trading. Now, the current threats have changed to individuals drowning in fishing nets, egg predation by people, and habitiat destruction. There has been considerable progress with the management of crocodiles in India. The management of the mugger is based principally on the legal protection of wild populations and large scale captive rearing programs.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Choudhury, B.C. & de Silva, A.

Reviewer/s
Bohm, M., Collen, B., Ram, M., Ross, J.P., Dacey, T. & Webb, G.J.W.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, HT, Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P. & Powney, G.

Justification
A past population decline of 30% over three generations (75 years) has been inferred due to direct observations of declines in abundance, reductions in range and habitat quality and extirpation from part of the range. These declines, due to threats such as habitat destruction and illegal poaching, are now thought to have stopped with populations generally stable or recovering. Total global population estimated at less than 8,700 non-hatchlings and overall stable and increasing although continuing decline is reported in some areas, populations are restricted between drainages, regions and countries and not in contact- therefore fragmented and no single population estimated to be more than 1,000 mature individuals. An assessment of Vulnerable under criterion A2cd has therefore been made for Crocodylus palustris.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 06/14/1976
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Entire


Population detail:

Population location: Entire
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Crocodylus palustris, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 06/14/1976
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Entire


Population detail:

Population location: Entire
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Crocodylus palustris, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Status

The mugger is classified as Vulnerable (VU A1a C2a) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1) and is listed on Appendix I of CITES (4).
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Population

Population
The species status was evaluated during an international workshop in Colombo, Sri Lanka in May 2013 at which over 40 regional experts and field researchers contributed current data and observations.

In 1989, the overall population size was estimated to be between 2,000-3,000 individuals (Whitaker and Whitaker 1989). Populations declined in the past, but in the current three generation period (approximately 1938 to present) populations in India and Sri Lanka were generally stable or recovering but decline continues in Pakistan, Iran, Nepal and the species is extirpated from Bangladesh and Myanmar. Although adequate survey data are lacking, existing records indicate that populations, while generally small and isolated, are widespread. The current global wild population is estimated at 5,700 to 8,700 non-hatchlings (data collected at the Colombo workshop 2013; see Table 1 in attached PDF). Field researchers and knowledgeable local experts consider numbers to be generally stable or increasing in the major remaining range in India and Sri Lanka

Bangladesh: Cox and Rahman (1994) reported C. palustris to be extinct in the wild, and only two wild Muggers were known to live in community ponds. However, S.M.A. Rashid (pers. comm.) reported 40 adult and 28 hatchling Muggers in captivity in seven zoos in 2009. Forty captive adult C. palustris (8 males:32 females) were obtained from the Madras Crocodile Bank Trust (India) in June 2005 (Andrews 2005).

Bhutan: Muggers are considered to have become extinct in Bhutan in the 1960s. A captive breeding programme was initiated at Phuentsholing and some individuals were reportedly released in the Manas River, but no detailed information is available. The released crocodiles were not monitored, and so their fate is unknown. In the past there have been sporadic sightings of C. palustris in the Bado, Manas, Sunkosh Torsa,Raidak and the Puna Tsongchu River, but there have been no recent records (Whitaker and Andrews 2003).

India: Muggers are reported from 15 States and the wild population is tentatively estimated as 3,021 to 4,287 non-hatchlings (Whitaker and Andrews 2003; R.Whitaker pers.comm. Colombo workshop 2013; see Table 1 in attached PDF). Numbers of non-hatchling Mugger in National Chambal Sanctuary (India) have apparently increased from 105 to 226 in 16 years (R.K.Sharma, data collected for the Madhya Pradesh Forest Department; Sharma et al. 1995). Human-Mugger conflict has been reported from different parts of the country (Whitaker 2007, 2008), indicating possible increases in population and/or Mugger reaching larger sizes.

Iran: Muggers are known from the drainages, small dams,artificial ponds and the natural ponds along the Sarbaz and Kajou Rivers, which join together to form the Bahokalat River in Sistan and Balochistan Provinces close to the Pakistan border. Recent surveys in the Nahang River area along the Pakistan border suggest that C. palustris is more widely distributed than previously considered. Mobaraki (unpublished data) estimated 200-300 C. palustris following a survey undertaken in 2007.

Pakistan: About 600 C. palustris are estimated to exist in four major wetland systems of Sindh, including a man-made lake (Javed and Rehman 2004, WWF unpublished 2007-2009 reports). Small populations are sparsely spread in Balochistan rivers, mainly near estuaries (Javed and Rehman 2004, Rehman 2007). These populations are considered to be vulnerable and diminishing, mainly due to drought and alteration of habitat (e.g. construction of dams). The species is reported to be extinct in the Punjab Province (Chaudhry 1993). Recent surveys undertaken in Sindh in 2006-09 (Masroor unpublished data) and 2008-09 (Chang unpublished data) may shed more light on status once they are available. More than 150 individuals are held in captivity in five facilities (four in Sindh and one in Punjab).

Nepal: The results of a 1993 survey indicated that the Muggers were restricted to isolated populations, primarily in protected habitats. Small numbers of individuals were known or suspected from the Mahakali, Nala, Karnali, Babai, Rapti,Narayani and Koshi River systems. Modification of habitat by river disruption and damming, and mortality in fisheries operations were major problems (McEachern 1994). Andrews and McEachern (1994) estimated 200 wild C. palustris in Nepal in 1993.

Myanmar: Van Dink (1993) reported that the last record of C. palustris in Myanmar was in 1867-68 and that the species was probably extinct there.

Sri Lanka: Approximately 2,400 to 3,500 individuals are estimated to exist in the wild, of which more than half are concentrated in several National Parks (e.g. Wilpattu, Yala, Bundala). Muggers are also found in many ‘tanks' or man-made reservoirs in the dry plains of the island. Overall, numbers are thought to be increasing and human-crocodile conflicts are widely reported. In other areas, C. palustris is threatened by rapid agricultural and industrial developments (Whitaker and Whitaker 1989).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species was threatened by habitat destruction due to agricultural and industrial expansion, entanglement and drowning in fishing equipment, egg predation by humans, illegal poaching for skin and meat and the use of body parts in medicine. Crocodiles were often treated as pests to inland fisheries and killed whenever possible (Santiapillai and Silva 2001). There are increasing incidents of human conflict with this species and this is due to encroachment by humans into the species' natural habitats (B.C. Choudhury pers. comm.).
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Muggers have been used in traditional Indian medicine, and have been hunted for sport and for their skin, particularly during the 1950s and 1960s. Hunting for their skin was the major factor that contributed to the decline of the mugger, but it is no longer the primary pressure on this species (5). Habitat destruction for agricultural and industrial development (2), egg predation by humans and drowning in fishing nets are the current threats that face the mugger (5).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed under CITES Appendix I. Management of the species is largely based on the legal protection of wild populations and captive breeding for restocking natural populations. Between 1978-1992 in India, a total of 1,193 captive bred individuals have been used to restock populations in 28 protected areas (Ross 1998). However, in 1994 due to overcrowding in captive centres, the production of new offspring was ceased by the Indian Government. Protection is moderately effective in protected areas in India, Sri Lanka, and Iran.

Education and public awareness into the importance of crocodiles to their habitats is needed (Santiapillai and Silva 2001), and continued monitoring of the populations is required.
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Conservation

All wild populations of mugger are legally protected, and management programs intended to restore populations have been very successful (5). Widespread captive breeding programs have restocked wild populations and now have a surplus of captive-bred crocodiles as suitable habitat is limited. The Mugger Management Project in Similipal, India was started in 1979 and was able to rebuild populations, provide muggers for restocking elsewhere, and resort eventually to farming the crocodiles (6). The Indian government has now called an end to all captive breeding programs in India (2).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Crocodylus palustris is known to have close associations with Indian culture as a religious symbol and for use in indigenous medicines. Sport hunting of crocodiles was once very popular, as well as hunting crocodiles for their skin, a material that is widely used in shoes, handbags, and other luxuries.

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Wikipedia

Mugger crocodile

The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris = "crocodile of the marsh"), also called the Indian, Indus, Persian, marsh crocodile or simply mugger,[2] is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and the surrounding countries, like Pakistan where the Sindhu crocodile is the National Reptile of Pakistan.[3] It is one of the three crocodilians found in India, the others being the gharial and the saltwater crocodile.[4] It is a medium sized crocodile that mostly inhabits freshwater lakes, ponds, sluggish rivers, swamps and marshes.[5] Males of the species may grow 4 m (13 ft) to 4.5 m (15 ft) in length, but rarely exceed 3.7 m (12 ft). As with other crocodilians, females are smaller.[6] The mugger crocodile has the broadest snout of any extant crocodile, giving it an alligator-like appearance. It is a more heavily armored species with enlarged scutes around the neck. Adults are dark grey or brown, while hatchlings are tan colored.

The mugger crocodile is a skilled predator that preys on a variety of species. Like other crocodilians they are ambush hunters and wait for their prey to come close. They wait camouflaged in the murky waters to launch the attack in the suitable moment. They mostly prey on fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. Reproduction takes place in winter months. Females lay eggs in nests that are holes dug in the sand. Temperature during incubation is the determinant of sex in the young. The mugger crocodile possesses the size to be a serious threat to humans but are not as aggressive as some other species, such as the sympatric saltwater crocodiles. They are also observed to usually avoid areas with saltwater crocodiles.[7] Muggers are fairly social species and tolerate their conspecifics during basking and feeding.

Taxonomy and etymology[edit]

The name "mugger" is a borrowing of Hindi magar.[8] This is in turn derived from Sanskrit makara "crocodile; mythical water monster; sign of the zodiac".[9]

Characteristics[edit]

Mugger Crocodile Skull
Adult male mugger crocodile

Mugger crocodiles have 19 upper teeth on each side; a snout that is 1⅓ to 1½ as long as broad at the base; a rough head but without any ridges; mandibular symphysis extending to the level of the fourth or fifth tooth; pre-maxillo-maxillary suture, on the palate, transverse, nearly straight, or curved forwards; and nasal bones separating the pnemaxillaries above. Four large nuchals forming a square, with a smaller one on each side; two pairs of smaller nuchals on a transverse series behind the occiput. Dorsal shield well separated from the nuchal, the scutes usually in 4, rarely in 6, longitudinal series, those of the two median usually considerably broader than long; 16 or 17 transverse series. Scales on limbs keeled. Fingers webbed at the base; outer toes extensively webbed. A serrated fringe on the outer edge of the leg. Adult blackish olive above: young pale olive, dotted and spotted with black.

Size[edit]

Male mugger crocodiles are larger than females, a trait called sexual dimorphism. However the difference between sexes is not as pronounced as is some other species of crocodilians. On average, adult females are 2.45 m (8.0 ft) in length and males are 3.2 m (10 ft). The weight of an average male this size would be in the range of 200 to 250 kg (440 to 550 lb). Weight in adults is variable, since a large male can be much more heavily built than a small adult female. Most individuals in a population made up of adults and subadults of both sexes would measure commonly from 40 to 200 kg (88 to 441 lb).[10][11] Old, mature males can get much larger, at up 4–5 m (13–16 ft) and a weight of more than 450 kg (1000 lbs). Although individuals exceeding 4.3 m (14 ft) are exceptionally rare, the largest Mugger on record measured a huge 5.2 m (17 ft) in length.[12] This specimen probably would have weighed slightly over 500 kg (1,100 lb). Statistical data on this species is rather poor. The largest specimen in the British Museum measures 3.7 m (12 ft).[13] Females of the species reach sexual maturity at 1.7 to 2.0 m (5.6 to 6.6 ft) and males at 2.6 m (8.5 ft) long.[14]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Mugger crocodile
Marsh crocodiles in captivity in CrocBank

The mugger crocodile can be found in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, the southern tip of Iran, and probably in Indo-China and at one point, even in Southern Iraq. The mugger is the only crocodilian found in Iran and Pakistan. This crocodile is the most common and widespread of the three species of crocodiles in India, far out numbering the much larger saltwater crocodile within the country (and most likely within neighboring countries).

In the 1980s, the largest population of wild crocodiles in Tamil Nadu, South India lived in the Amaravathi Reservoir, and in the Chinnar, Thennar and Pambar rivers that drain into it. Their total population here was estimated to be 60 adults and 37 sub-adults. The Amaravati Sagar Crocodile Farm, Established there in 1975, is the largest crocodile nursery in India. Eggs are collected from wild nests along the perimeter of the reservoir to be hatched and reared at the farm. There were up to 430 animals maintained in captivity at one time. Hundreds of adult crocodiles have been reintroduced from here into the wild.[15] The estimated population in Pakistan is between 400 to 450 animals found in the coastal areas and rivers of Sindh and Baluchistan. The estimated number of animals in Sindh in 160, while in Balochistan the estimated number is 64, while only 24 were seen there, sources in the Sindh Wildlife Department said, requesting anonymity.

On the Iranian Makran coast, above Chabahar are found around 200 mugger corocodiles. They are indigenous to the Sarbaz River, Bahu Kalat River, Kaju[disambiguation needed] and Pishin[disambiguation needed] river basins in Baluchistan province. Due to human activities and that long drought of the late 1990s, early 2000s, the mugger has been pushed to the brink of extinction over the past few years. Following several tropical cyclones, such as the Cyclone Gonu and Cyclone Yamyin in 2007, and Cyclone Phet in 2010, much of the habitat of the Iranian mugger crocodiles has been restored as the dry lakes and hamuns have flooded once again. The animal is known as gando in the local Iranian vernaculars.

The mugger crocodile is a freshwater species found in lakes, rivers and marshes. Muggers prefer slow-moving, shallower bodies of water rather than, fast-flowing, deep areas. They are also known to thrive in man-made reservoirs and irrigation canals. Although it prefers freshwater, it has some tolerance to saltwater therefore is occasionally reported from saltwater lagoons. It is sympatric with the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in some areas of India and with the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) in other areas, but separated by habitat most of the time. It is adapted to terrestrial life like its cousin, the Cuban crocodile, more than most crocodilians, but is ecologically most similar to the African Nile crocodile. It is known to be more mobile on land, can migrate considerable distances over land in search of a more suitable habitat. It can chase prey on land for short distances. They are also known to dig burrows as shelters during the dry seasons.

Biology and behavior[edit]

Mugger crocodiles can achieve speed of around 8 mph over a short distance in pursuit of prey. They can swim much faster than they can run—achieving speeds of 10 to 12 mph in short bursts—and can cruise at about 1 to 2 mph.

Hunting and diet[edit]

Mugger crocodile (Gando) in Chabahar, Iran

Being a large carnivorous reptile, the mugger crocodile eats fish, snakes, turtles, birds and mammals. The mammalian prey are usually small to medium sized, such as monkeys, squirrels, chital and otters. In fact, most vertebrates that approach to drink are potential prey, and may suffer being seized and dragged into the water to be drowned and devoured when the opportunity arises. Large adults will sometimes prey on larger mammals, such as large deer, like sambar, and large bovines, like cattle and domestic water buffalo, but such large prey are not common prey as in the case of sympatric saltwater crocodiles. At night, they sometimes hunt on land, lying in ambush near forest trails.[16] During these nocturnal hunts, they often steal kills from other predators, such as leopards.[citation needed] This species is generally considered to be occasionally dangerous to humans, but nowhere near as notorious as the much larger (and, in India, less common) saltwater crocodile.[citation needed]

Tool use[edit]

Mugger crocodiles have been documented using lures to hunt prey such as birds.[17] This means they are among the first reptiles recorded to use tools. By balancing sticks and branches on their heads, Mugger crocodiles are able to lure birds looking for suitable nesting material. This strategy, which is shared by the American alligator, is particularly effective during the nesting season, in which birds are more likely to gather appropriate nesting materials.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Crocodylus palustris IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (1996) Listed as Vulnerable (VU A1a, C2a v2.3)
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Marsh Crocodile". Encyclopedia Americana. 
  3. ^ "National Symbols and Things of Pakistan". Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  4. ^ Hiremath, K.G. Recent advances in environmental science. Discovery Publishing House, 2003. ISBN 81-7141-679-9. 
  5. ^ Da Silva, A. and Lenin, J. (2010). "Mugger Crocodile Crocodylus palustris, pp. 94–98 in S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson (eds.) Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. 3rd edition, Crocodile Specialist Group: Darwin.
  6. ^ Mugger (Crocodylus palustris). Arkive. Retrieved on 2013-04-13.
  7. ^ Current Distribution of Crocodylus palustris. Crocodile Species List. Retrieved on 2013-04-13.
  8. ^ Mugger | Define Mugger at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  9. ^ "mugger, n.3". Oxford English Dictionary Online. December 2012. Oxford University Press. [1]
  10. ^ Pawaiya, R.V.S.; Sharma, A.K.; Swarup, D. and Somvanshi, R. (2011). "Pathology of mycotic gastritis in a wild Indian freshwater/marsh crocodile (Mugger; Crocodylus palustris): a case report". Veterinarni Medicina 56 (3): 135–139. 
  11. ^ Travel – Wildlife – Crocodile. India4u. Retrieved on 2013-05-04.
  12. ^ Crocodilian Species – Marsh Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris). Flmnh.ufl.edu. Retrieved on 2013-05-04.
  13. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890) Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Batrachia.
  14. ^ [2]. Crocodilian Species List. Retrieved on 2013-05-10.
  15. ^ Andrews, Harry V., "Status and Distribution of the Mugger Crocodile in Tamil Nadu" [3]
  16. ^ Dinets, V.L. (2010). "On terrestrial hunting in crocodilians". Herpetological Bulletin 114: 15–18. 
  17. ^ Dinets, V; Brueggen, JC; Brueggen, J.D. (2013). "Crocodilians use tools for hunting". Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 1. doi:10.1080/03949370.2013.858276. 
  18. ^ "Crocodiles are cleverer than previously thought: Some crocodiles use lures to hunt their prey". ScienceDaily. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
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