Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Hispaniolan ground iguanas dig separate soil burrows for shelter and nesting, which they continue to expand over time, although hollow tree trunks and rock cavities are also used when soil is unavailable. Females reach sexual maturity at approximately 2-3 years and breeding takes place once a year. Egg-laying is precisely timed to coincide with the first rainy season from May to June, with anything from 2-18 eggs laid per clutch, with an average of 11. Incubation lasts 95-100 days, after which hatching takes place in synchrony with the second rainy season from September to October (4). Although insects and crustaceans will be taken on an opportunistic basis, Hispaniolan ground iguanas predominantly feed on a variety of plants and plant parts (1).
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Description

The Hispaniolan ground iguana is a sizeable, robust iguana, easily recognised by the enlarged spiny scales that wrap in transverse rings around the tail, and by its highly distinctive colouration. Five to six pale grey vertical stripes alternate with dark grey to black stripes either side of the body, and meet at the spiny protrusion running down the centre of the back. Colour patterns show very little individual or developmental variation, with the exception that greater contrast between stripes exists in juveniles than in adults (4).
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Distribution

Range Description

Ricord’s iguana is known only from southwestern Dominican Republic, where it is restricted to the arid Valle de Neiba and the most xeric portion of the Peninsula de Barahona coastal lowlands. The two populations are separated by the mesic Sierra de Baoruco (Massif de la Selle in Haiti), with three peaks exceeding 2,000 m that form an extensive ecological barrier. Past drier Pleistocene climates may have allowed genetic exchange between the two subpopulations. The total range of Ricord’s iguana in the Dominican Republic is under 100 km², and less than 60% of the historical range is occupied, most of it showing various levels of disturbance. Throughout their range, Ricord’s iguanas are sympatric with rhinoceros iguanas.
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Continent: Caribbean
Distribution: Hispaniola (SW Dominican Republic;  presumably in the Cul de Sac Plain of Haiti)  
Type locality: Saint-Domingue.
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Range

As its common name alludes, the Hispaniolan ground iguana is found on the island of Hispaniola, where it shares its habitat with the larger rhinoceros iguana (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) (1). Endemic to this island, which contains the nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic (5), the Hispaniolan ground iguana exists in two populations separated by the natural ecological barrier of the Sierra de Baoruco mountains (1).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Compared to rhinoceros iguanas, Ricord’s iguanas are quite specialized. Several key environmental factors, including soil depth and texture, landform, bedrock parental material, and climate seem to determine their presence. Ricord’s iguanas inhabit the most arid regions of the Dominican Republic, where the climate is highly seasonal.

Ricord’s iguanas are strongly associated with thorn scrub woodlands, particularly with the thorn scrub-dry forest ecotone. Typical habitat can be found north of Cabo Rojo inside the fork of the Oviedo-Pedernales and Cabo Rojo-Acetillar bauxite mine roads. The topography of the area consists of a series of broad, flat plains punctuated by rocky steps and marine terraces with very fine soil over exposed dogtooth limestone. Trees and shrubs are widely spaced, without forming a closed canopy. Further north, only rhinoceros iguanas are present at a second, higher elevation site, with similar temperature but greater rainfall. In the transition zone between these two sites, both iguana species are present, sharing the edge habitat.

On Cabritos Island, where Ricord’s iguanas have historically outnumbered rhinoceros iguanas based on frequency of sightings by visiting researchers, the plant community is a succulent-dominated 5-6 m dry forest on white sandy soil with low topography. Ricord’s iguanas occur on north and south gentle slopes as well as on the central plateau, where soil conditions are favorable for their extensive burrows. Ricord’s iguanas feed on a wide variety of plants and plant parts, depending on local availability. Insects and crustaceans are also taken opportunistically.

While rhinoceros iguanas make extensive use of limestone crevices in addition to soil burrows, Ricord’s iguanas prefer to dig soil burrows which they continue to expand over time. Hollow tree trunks and rock cavities are also used for retreats when soil is unavailable. Retreat entrances are generally dug under dense thorny vegetation, shrubs, stumps, or exposed rocks.

Nesting sites are separate from retreats, in fine sandy soils. Egg laying is highly synchronized with the first rainy period (May-June). Females lay 2-18 eggs per clutch. Incubation lasts 95-100 days, and hatching is synchronized with the second rainy season (September-October). Females reach sexual maturity at about 2-3 years of age. The social behavior of Ricord’s iguana generally resembles that of other rock iguanas, although wild males defend females much more aggressively in captivity than do wild male rhinoceros iguanas maintained at lower densities in comparable enclosures. Although of major research interest and significant conservation importance, little is known of interspecific interactions between Ricord’s and rhinoceros iguanas.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Cyclura iguanas are terrestrial animals, spending most of their time on the ground (5). In comparison with the rhinoceros iguana (Cyclura cornuta cornuta), the Hispaniolan ground iguana is relatively specialised, occupying the most arid regions of the Dominican Republic, where the climate is highly seasonal, and is strongly associated with thorn scrub woodlands, particularly with the thorn scrub-dry forest ecotone (1).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A1ce+2cde

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1996
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Ottenwalder, J.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1994
    Indeterminate
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Indeterminate
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Indeterminate
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
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Status

Classified as Critically Endangered (CR A1ce + 2cd, B1 + 2ce) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1), and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
All available data indicate that the historical range of Ricord’s iguana was small and disjunct. Several factors indicate that the population is currently declining, including direct observation, reduction in the extent and quality of available habitat, and documentation of the negative effects of introduced species. Researchers and local inhabitants agree that until the mid-1970s, population densities of mature individuals were much higher than they are at present. Lacking more accurate data, a current population estimate of 2,000 to 4,000 is probably conservative but fair.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threats to Ricord’s iguanas are from human activities resulting in habitat reduction and degradation (clearing of vegetation for agricultural use, charcoal production, harvesting of fuelwood and hardwoods, overbrowsing by free-ranging livestock, mining of limestone, illegal collection of live cacti for local and international trade), in combination with local subsistence hunting for food and predation from introduced carnivores (dogs, cats and mongooses). Competition from mammalian herbivores probably also occurs. Hunting of Ricord’s iguanas for food and trade has increased gradually since the mid 1970s, both for local consumption as well as at a few oriental restaurants in Santo Domingo where iguanas were offered as a specialty dish. In the past, some hunters used to set up to 100 snare traps per day at the entrance of retreats, with 30-50% trapping success. Although current populations no longer support the numbers harvested 15 years ago, iguanas continue to be captured opportunistically in all areas with remaining populations, except on Isla Cabritos where law enforcement is presently effective.
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Regrettably, the major threats facing the Hispaniolan ground iguana are habitat degradation and loss as a result of human activities, which include logging of hardwoods, harvesting for charcoal production and fuel wood, over grazing and trampling by free-ranging livestock, mining of limestone, and illegal collection of live cacti for local and international trade. Additionally, this iguana is threatened by local subsistence hunting and predation from introduced carnivores such as dogs, cats, and mongooses. Hunting for Hispaniolan ground iguanas for food and trade has increased gradually since the mid 1970s, this species at one time being served at oriental restaurants in Santo Domingo as a speciality dish (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Aside from occasional smuggling of animals across the Haitian border, compliance with international CITES trade regulations is effective. Enforcement of national protective legislation in the Dominican Republic has improved during the past few years, but effective control is adversely influenced by a number of factors. Clearing of natural habitat for development is not being prevented nor regulated and illegal hunting for food and the local pet market continues.

Ricord’s iguana is partially protected in two areas. In the Neiba Valley, about 60% of the area supporting iguanas, including Isla Cabritos and a section of the south shore of Lake Enriquillo, is protected within the recently created Lago Enriquillo National Park. The Isla Cabritos population has been protected within Isla Cabritos National Park since 1974.

In the Barahona Peninsula range, two protected areas, Parque Nacional Jaragua and the Acetillar Scenic Reserve, cover most of the remaining distribution of the species to the north and east of Cabo Rojo. Ricord’s iguanas are only known from the park’s western boundary, where conflicts with limestone mining concessions on both sides of the park border continue to be unresolved. Until now, no formal management has been established in the Acetillar reserve, and the habitat is impacted by a variety of activities.

As of November 1995 the total captive population of Ricord’s iguana was 5.9 individuals in two collections (Indianapolis Zoo and one private collection). Successful captive breeding has been achieved in both, but survivorship of young has been low. The only other significant captive breeding program was developed at the Parque Zoologico Nacional (ZooDom). Although adversely affected by institutional problems, the program lasted for a number of years with comparable success. Plans to re-establish the program at ZooDom have been halted since 1994 due to unfavorable institutional conditions
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Conservation

International trade in the Hispaniolan ground iguana is controlled by its listing under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (3). Compliance with CITES trade regulations is largely effective, although occasional smuggling of animals across the Haitian border does still occur. Enforcement of national protective legislation in the Dominican Republic has improved in the last few years, but fails to go far enough, since clearing of natural habitat for development is neither being prevented nor regulated and illegal hunting for food and the local pet market continues (1). However, the Isla Cabritos range, which used to be intensively exploited for hardwood cutting, charcoal, and livestock grazing, has undergone extensive natural regeneration in the last 15 years, and improved protective management since 1992 has meant present conditions there are stable (4). Indianapolis Zoo has had a small but successful captive breeding programme, although survivorship of young has been low (1), and there are plans to re-establish new breeding colonies at both the Parque Zoologico Nacional (ZooDom) in the Dominican Republic and the Indianapolis Zoo (4). The establishment of local educational awareness campaigns to try to reduce illegal hunting, the strengthening and enforcing of protective legislation, and the implementation of research, monitoring and recovery programmes will be essential in guiding effective conservation efforts in the future (2).
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Wikipedia

Cyclura ricordi

The Hispaniolan ground iguana, Ricord's ground iguana, Ricord's rock iguana, or Ricord's iguana (Cyclura ricordi) is a critically endangered species of rock iguana.[1] It is found on the island of Hispaniola in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and is the only known species of rock iguana to coexist with the rhinoceros iguana (Cyclura cornuta).[1][2] Its natural habitat is dry savanna within three subpopulations in the southwestern Dominican Republic.[1][2] It is threatened by habitat loss due to agricultural encroachment.[1][2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Its generic name (Cyclura) is derived from the Ancient Greek cyclos (κύκλος) meaning "circular" and ourá (οὐρά) meaning "tail", after the thick-ringed tail characteristic of all Cyclura iguanas.[3] Its specific name is a Latinized form of French Biologist, Alexandre Ricord's last name; Ricord first wrote of the species in 1826.[4]

Morphological and genetic data indicate that the closest living relative of C ricordi is C. carinata of the Turks and Caicos Islands.[5]

Anatomy and morphology[edit]

On Cabritos Island

Ricord's iguana is a large species of rock iguana with a body length of 49–51 cm in males and 40–43 cm in females with an equally long tail.[6] Ricord's iguana's toes are articulated to be efficient in digging and climbing trees.[6]

Their body color is a grayish green flat color marked by five to six bold pale gray chevrons alternating with dark gray to black chevrons.[6] In adults, the dark chevrons are less contrasting than in juveniles.[6] Ricord's iguana's eyes have a dark almost black iris and red sclera.

This species, like other species of Cyclura, is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and have more prominent dorsal crests as well as larger femoral pores on their thighs, which are used to release pheromones.[7][8]

Ricord's iguanas have excellent vision, which allows them to detect shapes and motions at long distances.[9] As Ricord's iguanas have only a few Rod cells they have poor vision in low-light conditions. At the same time they have cells called “double cones” which give them sharp color vision and enable them to see ultraviolet wavelengths.[9] This ability is highly useful when basking so the animal can ensure that it absorbs enough sunlight in the forms of UVA and UVB to produce Vitamin D.[7]

Like other Cyclura iguanas, Ricord's iguanas have evolved a white photosensory organ on the top of their heads called the parietal eye, which are also called third eye, pineal eye or pineal gland.[9] This “eye” does not work the same way as a normal eye does as it has only a rudimentary retina and lens and thus, cannot form images.[9] It is however sensitive to changes in light and dark and can detect movement.[9]

Primarily herbivorous, Ricord's iguanas are presented with a special problem for osmoregulation: plant matter contains more potassium and as it has less nutritional content per gram, more must be eaten to meet the lizard's metabolic needs.[10] As Ricord's iguanas are not capable of creating liquid urine more concentrated than their bodily fluids, like birds they excrete nitrogenous wastes as urate salts through a salt gland.[10] As a result, Ricord's iguanas have developed this lateral nasal gland to supplement renal salt secretion by expelling excess potassium and sodium chloride.[10]

Diet[edit]

Ricord's iguana, like most Cyclura ssp is primarily herbivorous, consuming leaves, flowers, berries, and fruits from different plant species. A study in 2000 by Dr Allison Alberts of the San Diego Zoo revealed that seeds passing through the digestive tracts of Cycluras germinate more rapidly than those that do not.[11][12] The seeds in the fruits consumed by Cyclura iguanas have an adaptive advantage by sprouting before the end of very short rainy seasons.[12] Ricord's iguana is an important means of distributing these seeds to new areas (particularly when females migrate to their nesting areas) and, as one of the largest native herbivores of their Hispaniola's ecosystem, they are essential for maintaining the balance between climate and vegetation.[12]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Ricord's iguana inhabits dry xeric scrubland with sandy and earthen soils in which they excavate burrows for retreats and nest sites that they expand over time.[1] Entrances to these burrows are generally dug under dense thorny vegetation, shrubs, stumps, or exposed rocks.[1] The adults of the species are primarily terrestrial whereas juveniles tend to occupy arboreal retreats.[3][13]

Ricord's iguana was thought until 2008 to be found only in the southwestern Dominican Republic, where it is restricted to the arid Valle de Neiba and the most xeric portion of the Peninsula de Barahona coastal lowlands.[6] These two populations are separated by the Sierra de Bahoruco (Massif de la Selle in Haiti), with three peaks exceeding 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) that form an extensive ecological barrier.[6][14] Past drier Pleistocene climates may have allowed genetic exchange between the two subpopulations.[6] Throughout their range, Ricord's iguanas coexist with rhinoceros iguanas and both species have been observed swimming and floating in freshwater by herpetologist Jose Ottenwalder.[6] In 2008 it was found to exist in Anse-a-Pitres, Haiti.[15] All other Caribbean islands, if they do have a rock iguana species, are home to a single species.[13]

Mating[edit]

Mating occurs from May through June.[1][14] Copulation is preceded by numerous head-bobs on the part of the male, who then circles around behind the female and grasps the nape of her neck.[14] He then attempts to restrain the female in order to maneuver his tail under hers to position himself for intromission.[14] Copulation generally lasts from 30 to 90 seconds, and a pair is rarely observed mating more than once or twice a day.[14] Anywhere from two to eighteen eggs are usually laid in June or July depending on the size and age of the female, in nests excavated in pockets of earth exposed to the sun.[1] The eggs go through a 90 to 100 day incubation period hatching in September and October.[1] It has been noted that Cyclura eggs are some of the largest eggs laid by any lizard.[14]

Threats[edit]

On the Barahona Peninsula, the population of Ricord's iguanas has been threatened by agricultural displacement through increased farming and cattle grazing as well as charcoal mining.[16] The iguanas are hunted and trapped as a food source by humans and killed by goatherders under the false superstition that iguanas rip open the bellies of livestock with their pointed crests.[16][17] Competition from domestic and feral livestock is also a concern as is predation of juveniles by cats and dogs.[16] They are also poached for the illegal exotic animal trade, commanding a high price with collectors.

Conservation[edit]

The estimated wild population is only 2,000-4,000 animals making this species critically endangered.[18] The Indianapolis Zoo has been involved in the Dominican Republic for almost ten years and will continue its research and conservation efforts with the Ricord's iguana.[19] The zoo's Project Iguana aids the survival of West Indian iguanas and their habitats through in-site conservation, captive breeding, public education, and scientific research.[13]

The project's goals are:
- to work with the Ricord's Iguana Recovery Group to implement the ISG's Species Recovery Plan
- to conduct a census of iguanas on Isla Cabritos, Dominican Republic.[19]
- to determine vitamin D status of captive West Indian iguanas at the Zoo before and after exposure to sunlight
- to work in partnership with ZOODOM (the national zoo of the Dominican Republic) to develop a long-term captive breeding and husbandry program for Ricord’s iguanas.[19]
- to develop an education program for West Indian iguanas and their habitats.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ottenwalder, J. (1996). "Cyclura ricordi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  2. ^ a b c Hudson, Rick (2007-04-01). "Big Lizards, Big Problems". Reptiles Magazine 15 (4): 58. 
  3. ^ a b Sanchez, Alejandro. "Family Iguanidae: Iguanas and Their Kin". Father Sanchez's Web Site of West Indian Natural History Diapsids I: Introduction; Lizards. Kingsnake.com. Retrieved November 26, 2007. 
  4. ^ Hollingsworth, Bradford D. (2004), "The Evolution of Iguanas: An Overview of Relationships and a Checklist of Species", Iguanas: Biology and Conservation (University of California Press): 43, ISBN 978-0-520-23854-1 
  5. ^ Alberts, Allison (2007). "Turks & Caicos Iguana, Cyclura carinata carinata Conservation & Mgmt. Plan 2005 - 2009" (PDF). Iguana Specialist Group. Retrieved November 26, 2007. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Ottenwalder, Jose (2007), "Ricord's Iguana Cyclura ricordi", Iguana Specialist Group, retrieved November 26, 2007 
  7. ^ a b De Vosjoli, Phillipe; David Blair (1992), The Green Iguana Manual, Escondido, California: Advanced Vivarium Systems, ISBN 1-882770-18-8 
  8. ^ Martins, Emilia P.; Lacy, Kathryn (2004), "Behavior and Ecology of Rock Iguanas,I: Evidence for an Appeasement Display", Iguanas: Biology and Conservation (University of California Press): 98–108, ISBN 978-0-520-23854-1 
  9. ^ a b c d e Brames, Henry (2007). "Aspects of Light and Reptile Immunity". Iguana: Conservation, Natural History, and Husbandry of Reptiles (International Reptile Conservation Foundation) 14 (1): 19–23. 
  10. ^ a b c Hazard, Lisa C. (2004), "Sodium and Pottassium Secretion by Iguana Salt Glands", Iguanas: Biology and Conservation (University of California Press): 84–85, ISBN 978-0-520-23854-1 
  11. ^ Derr, Mark (October 10, 2000), "In Caribbean, Endangered Iguanas Get Their Day", New York Times Science Section 
  12. ^ a b c Alberts, Allison; Lemm, Jeffrey; Grant, Tandora; Jackintell, Lori (2004), "Testing the Utility of Headstarting as a Conservation Strategy for West Indian Iguanas", Iguanas: Biology and Conservation (University of California Press): 210, ISBN 978-0-520-23854-1 
  13. ^ a b c Foster PhD, John Scott (August 2005), Saving Ricord's Iguana: Conservation and Education in the Dominican Republic (PDF), Association of Zoos and Aquariums Communique, pp. 19–20 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Blair, David (1991), "West Indian Iguanas of the Genus Cyclura: Their Current Status in the Wild, Conservation Priorities and Efforts to Breed Them in Captivity" (PDF), Northern California Herpetological Society Special Publication SE (6): 55–56 
  15. ^ Accime, Masani, Ricord's Iguana Project: Message from our research team, retrieved 2012-02-12 
  16. ^ a b c d Arias, Ernst; Inchaustegui, Sixto (December 1, 2005). "Conservation of Cyclura ricordii in the Southwestern Dominican Republic and a Brief History of the Grupo Jaragua". Iguana: Journal of the International Iguana Society 12 (4): 222–234. 
  17. ^ Rupp, Ernst; Inchaustegui, Sixto; Arias, Yvonne (2005). "Preliminary Report on the Distribution and Situation of Cyclura ricordi on the Southern Shore of Enriquillo Lake". El Vergel (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) (33): 1–12. 
  18. ^ Alberts, Allison; Hudson, Richard D (2004), "The Role of Zoos in the Conservation of West Indian Iguanas", Iguanas: Biology and Conservation (University of California Press): 275, ISBN 978-0-520-23854-1 
  19. ^ a b c Wyatt, III, John E. (2003). "Indianapolis Zoo Conducts Ricord’s Iguana Field Research". Project Iguana. Indianapolis Zoo. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
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