Sometimes taxonomists create new names for groups that already have a name. They may do this because they are unaware of the original name, or they may think the organism before them belongs to a different group when in fact it does not. If two or more names are found to apply to the same group, they are considered synonyms. In most cases, the first name takes priority and is considered to be the valid or accepted name. However, there can be exceptions, and it's not always easy to determine which of a series of synonyms should be considered valid or accepted. Here we list the synonyms provided to EOL by our classification partners. We also include other versions of the name that most likely refer to the same group, for example, misspellings in the literature or different variations of the authorship associated with the name.

Preferred marks the preferred name from each source.

The Reptile Database

Name Relationship
Chelonoidis nigra QUOY & GAIMARD 1824 Preferred
Testudo nigra QUOY & GAIMARD 1824 (?) Synonym
Testudo californiana QUOY & GAIMARD 1824 (?)
Testudo elephantopus HARLAN 1827
Testudo schweigeri GRAY 1831 (?)
Testudo Schweiggeri — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 108
Testudo Nigra — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 115
Testudo Schweiggeri — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 221
Testudo Nigra — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 221
Testudo planiceps GRAY 1854 (non T. planiceps SCHOEPFF 1792)
Testudo planiceps GRAY 1855: 135
Testudo elephantopus — GÜNTHER 1874: 312
Testudo schweiggeri BOULENGER 1889 (nom. emend. pro T. schweigeri GRAY)
Testudo nigra — BOULENGER 1889
Testudo clivosa GARMAN 1917
Testudo typica GARMAN 1917
Geochelone elephantopus — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Geochelone nigra — KING & BURKE 1989
Chelonoidis nigra — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone elephantopus — VALVERDE 2004
Chelonoidis nigra — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Chelonoidis nigra — GERLACH (pers. comm.)
Chelonoidis nigra — LE et al. 2006
Geochelone elephantopus — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra nigra (BAUR 1889)
Testudo güntheri BAUR 1889
Testudo macrophyes GARMAN 1917
Testudo elephantopus elephantopus — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus elephantopus — PRITCHARD 1967
Chelonoidis elephantopus elephantopus — OBST 1985
Chelonoidis nigra nigra — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus elephantopus — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone nigra abingdonii (GÜNTHER 1877)
Testudo abingdonii GÜNTHER 1877
Testudo elephantopus abingdonii — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus abingdoni — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone nigra abingdoni — IVERSON 1992
Geochelone elephantopus abingdoni — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone abingdoni — VALVERDE 2004
Geochelone abingdonii — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone abingdoni — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra becki (ROTHSCHILD 1901)
Testudo becki ROTHSCHILD 1901
Geochelone elephantopus becki — PRITCHARD 1967
Chelonoidis nigra becki — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus becki — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone becki — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone becki — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra chathamensis (VAN DENBURGH 1907)
Testudo chathamensis VAN DENBURGH 1907
Testudo elephantopus chathamensis — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus chathamensis — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone nigra chathamensis — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra chathamensis — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus chathamensis — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone chathamensis — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone chathamensis — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra darwini (VAN DENBURGH 1907)
Testudo darwini VAN DENBURGH 1907
Testudo elephantopus darwini — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus darwini — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone nigra darwini — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra darwini — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus darwini — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone darwini — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone darwini — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra ephippium (GÜNTHER 1874)
Testudo ephippium GÜNTHER 1874: 312
Testudo elephantopus duncanensis — [GARMAN 1917]
Testudo elephantopus ephippium — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus ephippium — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone nigra ephippium — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra ephippium — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus ephippium — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone ephippium — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone ephippium — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra guntheri (BAUR 1889)
Geochelone elephantopus guntheri — PRITCHARD 1967
Chelonoidis elephantopus guentheri — OBST 1985
Geochelone nigra guntheri — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra guntheri — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus guntheri — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone guntheri — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone guntheri — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra hoodensis (VAN DENBURGH 1907)
Testudo hoodensis VAN DENBURGH 1907
Testudo elephantopus hoodensis — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus hoodensis — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone nigra hoodensis — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra hoodensis — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus hoodensis — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone nigra hoodensis — HILL 2004
Geochelone hoodensis — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone hoodensis — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra microphyes (GÜNTHER 1874)
Testudo microphyes GÜNTHER 1874: 313
Geochelone elephantopus microphyes — PRITCHARD 1967
Chelonoidis elephantopus microphyes — OBST 1985
Geochelone nigra microphyes — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra microphyes — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus microphyes — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone microphyes — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone nigra — FRITZ & BININDA-EMONDS 2007
Geochelone microphyes — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra nigrita (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835)
Testudo nigrita DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 80
Testudo nigrita — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 220
Testudo nigrita — GÜNTHER 1874: 312
Testudo porteri ROTHSCHILD 1903
Testudo elephantopus nigrita — MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Geochelone elephantopus porteri — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone porteri — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Geochelone nigra nigrita — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra nigrita — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus porteri — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone nigrita — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone porteri — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Chelonoidis nigra phantastica (Van Denburgh, 1907)
Chelonoidis phantastica — RHODIN et al. 2010
Geochelone nigra vandenburghi (DE SOLA 1930)
Testudo vandenburghi DE SOLA 1930
Geochelone elephantopus vandenburghi — PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone vandenburghi — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Geochelone nigra vandenburghi — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra vandenburghi — DAVID 1994
Geochelone elephantopus vandenburghi — SWASH & STILL 2000
Geochelone nigra vandenburghi — MÁRQUEZ et al. 2004
Geochelone vandenburghi — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone vandenburghi — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008
Geochelone nigra vicina (GÜNTHER 1874)
Testudo vicina GÜNTHER 1874: 313
Geochelone vicina — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Geochelone nigra vicina — IVERSON 1992
Chelonoidis nigra vicina — DAVID 1994
Geochelone vicina — CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2006
Geochelone vicina — POULAKAKIS et al. 2008

Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013

Name Relationship
Chelonoidis nigra QUOY & GAIMARD 1824 Preferred
Chelonoidis elephantopus elephantopus OBST 1985 Ambiguous synonym
Chelonoidis elephantopus guentheri OBST 1985
Chelonoidis elephantopus microphyes OBST 1985
Geochelone elephantopus ERNST 1989
Geochelone elephantopus abingdoni PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus becki PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus chathamensis PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus darwini PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus elephantopus PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus ephippium PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus guntheri PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus hoodensis PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus microphyes PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus porteri PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone elephantopus vandenburghi PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone nigra KING 1989
Geochelone nigra abingdoni IVERSON 1992
Testudo californiana QUOY 1824
Testudo clivosa GARMAN 1917
Testudo elephantopus HARLAN 1827
Testudo elephantopus abingdonii MERTENS 1955
Testudo elephantopus chathamensis MERTENS 1955
Testudo elephantopus darwini MERTENS 1955
Testudo elephantopus elephantopus MERTENS 1955
Testudo elephantopus ephippium MERTENS 1955
Testudo elephantopus hoodensis MERTENS 1955
Testudo elephantopus nigrita MERTENS 1955
Testudo nigra QUOY 1824
Testudo planiceps GRAY 1854
Testudo schweigeri GRAY 1831
Testudo Schweiggeri DUMÉRIL 1835
Testudo typica GARMAN 1917
Geochelone abingdoni VALVERDE 2004
Geochelone abingdonii CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone becki CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone chathamensis CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone darwini CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone ephippium CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone guntheri CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone hoodensis CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone microphyes CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone nigrita CISNEROSHEREDIA 2006
Geochelone porteri ERNST 1989
Geochelone vandenburghi ERNST 1989
Geochelone vicina ERNST 1989
Testudo abingdonii GÜNTHER 1877
Testudo becki ROTHSCHILD 1901
Testudo chathamensis VAN 1907
Testudo darwini VAN 1907
Testudo ephippium GÜNTHER 1874
Testudo guntheri BAUR 1889
Testudo hoodensis VAN 1907
Testudo macrophyes GARMAN 1917
Testudo microphyes GÜNTHER 1874
Testudo nigrita DUMÉRIL 1835
Testudo porteri ROTHSCHILD 1903
Testudo vandenburghi DE 1930
Testudo vicina GÜNTHER 1874

NCBI Taxonomy

Name Relationship
Chelonoidis nigra Preferred
Chelonoidis elephantopus
Geochelone elephantopus
Geochelone nigra
Geochelone nigra King & Burke 1989
Chelonoidis nigra (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Authority

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

Name Relationship
Chelonoidis nigra (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Preferred
Geochelone nigra (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) Subsequent name/combination
Testudo californiana Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 Nomen oblitum
Testudo galapagoensis Baur, 1889 Junior synonym

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