Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Yellow Himalayan raspberry was introduced to Hawaii for its edible fruit around 1960. It is widely grown as an ornamental in tropical climates.

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Native of Temperate America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kozhikkode, Wayanad, Idukki, Malappuram, Palakkad

"
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"Maharashtra: Satara Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga, Kerala: Idukki, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Palakkad, Wynad Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli"
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Distribution in the United States

In Hawaii, yellow Himalayan raspberry invades wet forest habitats at elevations between about 2000 and 5000 feet that have been disturbed by feral pigs.

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Native Range

Southern Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Tropical China, and the Philippines) 
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Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Himalaya (Swat to Bhutan), Assam, Ceylon, Burma, east to W. China, Philippines.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Himalayan raspberry is a stout evergreen shrub with prickly stems about 12 feet long. Its thick leaves are about 3-4 inches long and 2-3 inches wide, divided into three roughly equal "finglers" with toothed leaf margins and inch-long leaf stalks that are densely covered with prickles. The flowers of yellow Himalayan raspberry are white and occur in short, terminal panicles. The fruit is yellow, edible and highly sought after.

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Elevation Range

1700-2300 m
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Description

Shrubs 1–3 m tall. Branchlets purplish brown or brownish, pubescent, with sparse, curved prickles and dense, purplish brown bristles or glandular hairs. Leaves imparipinnate, 3-foliolate; petiole 2–6 cm, petiolule of terminal leaflet 2–3 cm, lateral leaflets subsessile, petiolule and rachis purplish red bristly, pubescent, with minute prickles; stipules linear, 7–11 mm, pubescent, with intermixed glandular hairs; blade of leaflets elliptic or obovate, 4–8(–12) × 3–6(–9) cm, terminal leaflet much larger than lateral leaflets, abaxially densely tomentose, with purplish red bristles along prominent veins, adaxially veins impressed, pubescent along midvein, base rounded, margin unevenly minute sharply serrate, apex acute, abruptly pointed, shallowly cordate, or subtruncate. Inflorescences terminal, dense glomerate racemes, (1.5–)2–4 cm, flowers several to 10 or more, or flowers several in clusters in leaf axils, rarely flowers solitary; rachis and pedicels pubescent, bristly; bracts linear, 5–9 mm, pubescent. Pedicel 4–6 mm. Flowers 1–1.5 cm in diam. Calyx abaxially pubescent, intermixed yellowish tomentose, sparsely bristly; sepals erect, ovate, 4–5(–6) × 2–3(–4) mm, abaxially densely yellowish gray tomentose, apex acute and abruptly pointed. Petals white or pink, spatulate, longer than sepals, margin premorse, densely pubescent, base clawed. Stamens numerous, shorter than petals; filaments broadened and flattened basally. Ovary pubescent; styles glabrous, slightly longer than stamens. Aggregate fruit golden yellow, subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diam., glabrous or drupelets pubescent at apex; pyrenes triangular-ovoid, densely rugulose. Fl. Mar–Apr, fr. Apr–May. 2n = 14.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Ramblers; stems covered with red bristles; prickles recurved, leaflets 5 x 5 cm, obovate to orbicular, serrulate; hispid below; nerves 7 or 8 pairs, spiny below; petiolule 5 mm long. Panicle axillary or terminal, fulvous tomentose; bracts 5 mm long, ovate, acute. Flowers white; pedicels 1 cm long, villous; sepals 6 x 4 mm, ovate, acute, united at base, pubescent; petals 7-8 mm long, obovate; torus densely villous; ovaries glabrous. Drupes 1.5 mm across, glabrous, deep red."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Evergreen, semi-evergreen and shola forests"
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Habitat in the United States

Yellow Himalayan raspberry is usually found in moist to wet forests. This species is well adapted to the full sun of open canopy forests and pastures as well as the deep shade of rain forests.

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Slopes, montane valleys, sparse forests, thickets, roadsides; 300--2600 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: November-March
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Reproduction

Biology and Spread

Yellow Himalayan raspberry spreads rapidly by root suckers and regenerates from underground shoots after fire or cutting. Its seeds are dispersed by fruit-eating birds and mammals.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Where it becomes established, yellow Himalayan raspberry forms impenetrable thickets, threatening native lowland wet forests and displacing native Hawaiian plant species, including a native Hawaiian raspberry (Rubus hawaiiensis).

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Wikipedia

Rubus ellipticus

Rubus ellipticus commonly known as Yellow Himalayan raspberry is a thorny fruiting shrub that originates from South Asia. It is called hisalu,ashilo or aisayloo and is loved by children playing in the forests. It is sweet to the taste, though it is not harvested for domestic use. The fruit perishes quickly after plucking from the thorny bush.

Invasive species - 100 worst[edit]

Prickly stem of R. ellipticus

Rubus ellipticus is listed in the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group database as an Invasive species, one of the World's 100 worst invasive species.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rubus ellipticus". Invasive Species Specialist Group. 20 July 2006. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 


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Notes

Comments

Rubus fasciculatus var. tomentosus Cardot (Notul. Syst. (Paris) 3: 314. 1917), described from Yunnan based on P. Ngueou s.n. and Ducloux 5147, is probably a synonym of R. ellipticus; the present authors have not seen the syntypes.
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