Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Considerable variation occurs in the native shrubs or small trees that are generally 2 to 4 meters tall. Deciduous leaves are simple, alternate generally serrate-dentate from the middle to the tip. Flowers form clusters in early May with five showy white petals and the ovary is 2 to 5 celled. The persistent purplish – black pome can remain dry and pulpy. Considerable variation occurs when it is found on sites with Saskatoon serviceberry where natural hybrids are sometimes found. It generally occupies drier sites than Saskatoon serviceberry.

Distribution: Utah serviceberry is generally found at elevations of 5000 to 9000 feet from Montana to Oregon, south to New Mexico, and California (Harrington, 1954).

Habitat: The plant is found on dry ridges and slopes in big sagebrush, pinyon-juniper, and aspen communities. It is abundant in the southern portion of the Great Basin (Wasser, 1982).

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Serviceberry, Juneberry, shadbush, and sarvis.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

The plant is found on rocky slopes, canyons and stream banks with 12 to 20 inches of annual precipitation. It has a deep spreading root system and occupies soils that are coarse to medium textured and well drained. It is not tolerant of high water tables or saline soils. It is adapted to drier sites than Saskatoon serviceberry. Utah serviceberry grows with a variety of other plants but grows slowly and seedlings can be suppressed by dense stands of grasses and forbs.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Amelanchier prunifolia Greene
Catalog Number: US 337513
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. F. Baker, F. S. Earle & S. M. Tracy
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Mancos., Montezuma, Colorado, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1899. Pittonia. 4: 21.
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Type fragment for Amelanchier utahensis Koehne
Catalog Number: US 1699999
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Locality: Utah, United States, North America
  • Type fragment: Koehne, B. A. 1890. Wiss. Beil. Progr. Falk-Realgymn. Berlin. 95: 25, f. 20 e., pl. 2.
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Isotype for Amelanchier crenata Greene
Catalog Number: US 368959
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. F. Baker
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Aztec., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1900. Pittonia. 4: 127.
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Isotype for Amelanchier crenata Greene
Catalog Number: US 981138
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. F. Baker
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Aztec., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1900. Pittonia. 4: 127.
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Isotype for Amelanchier elliptica A. Nelson
Catalog Number: US 581383
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. N. Goodding
Year Collected: 1903
Locality: Beaver Creek., Larimer, Colorado, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Nelson, A. 1905. Bot. Gaz. 40: 66.
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Syntype for Amelanchier rubescens Greene
Catalog Number: US 368962
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. F. Baker
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Aztec., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1900. Pittonia. 4: 128.
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Holotype for Amelanchier nitens Tidestr.
Catalog Number: US 1115567
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): I. F. Tidestrom
Year Collected: 1919
Locality: Wilson's Ranch, base of Charleston Mountains., Nevada, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Tidestrom, I. F. 1923. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 36: 182.
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Isotype for Amelanchier jonesiana C.K. Schneid.
Catalog Number: US 220079
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: City Creek Canyon., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Schneider, C. K. 1906. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 182.
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Syntype for Amelanchier rubescens Greene
Catalog Number: US 368963
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. F. Baker
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Aztec., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1900. Pittonia. 4: 128.
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Syntype for Amelanchier rubescens Greene
Catalog Number: US 981135
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. F. Baker
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Aztec., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1900. Pittonia. 4: 128.
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Utah serviceberry can be established with seed planted about ¼ of an inch deep in fall months or container grown plants set in the ground in early spring when soil moisture is present. Sprouting does occur but is not as common as the occurrence in the more northern ecotypes of Saskatoon serviceberry. Establishment can be slow, especially if soil moisture is low, but the plant can survive on drier sites than Saskatoon serviceberry. New plantings can require several years (8 to 10) for flowering and seed production. Protection from browsing and plant competition along with the use of mulch will reduce the time required for establishment. Shade also will be beneficial for establishing live plants.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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General Ecology

Life Form

More info for the term: shrub

Shrub

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amelanchier utahensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amelanchier utahensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicat values).

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Upper Colorado Environmental Plant Center, Meeker, Colorado

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

The plant is host of Apple-cedar rust when growing in close proximity to Junipers. The rust affects leaves and berries. No other serious diseases or pests are known (Wasser, 1982).

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Long Ridge Germplasm Utah serviceberry is the only release of the species. Seed and plants of Long Ridge Germplasm are available form Upper Colorado Environmental Plant Center (UCEPC) Meeker, Colorado.

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Seed production

Utah serviceberry has about 25,800 seeds per pound.

In years with good moisture, large quantities of berries are produced and can be hand harvested. Controlled browsing is also important for berry production. Seedlings can exhibit good vigor but slow growth. Fresh seed may require cold stratification.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Environmental concerns

The plant is not known to be aggressive, invasive, or difficult to control when used in areas where adapted.

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After seeding or planting live plants, controlled browsing will be important for maintaining vigorous growth. Reducing plant competition is also necessary for rapid plant growth. Controlled browsing will be important for berry production. After the plant is established, it can withstand moderate to heavy browsing in years with average to above average precipitation. Browsing should not exceed more than 50 percent of the current season’s growth to maintain good plant vigor and growth.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Utah serviceberry can be used for food and cover to improve wildlife habitat. Leaves and small branches are used by big game and livestock and berries are consumed by birds and small animals. It also provides nesting and cover for birds. Utah serviceberry can be used for reseeding big sagebrush and pinyon-juniper sites and is also beneficial for conservation plantings on rangelands and mined land. The plant can be used for landscaping and as a component of windbreaks and shelterbelts. It also can be used for roadside beautification. Native Americans used the berries as a source of food that was prepared in several ways (Dunmire and Tierney, 1997). Berries persist longer on the bush than on Saskatoon serviceberry and provide a food source over a longer period of time, especially when the ground may be covered with snow.

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Wikipedia

Amelanchier utahensis

Amelanchier utahensis, the Utah serviceberry, is a shrub or small tree native to western North America. This serviceberry grows in varied habitats, from scrubby open slopes to woodlands and forests.

A. utahensis in high Sierras California - flower clusters on short racemes; leaves elliptical, toothed above middle

Description[edit]

Amelanchier utahensis is a spreading plant, reaching a maximum of five meters (15 feet) in height. It is deciduous, bearing rounded or spade-shaped often toothed green leaves and losing them at the end of the season. In April and May the shrub blooms in short inflorescences of white flowers, each with five widely spaced narrow petals. The fruits are pomes. The Utah serviceberry is browsed by desert bighorns, elk, and mule deer, as well as many birds and domesticated livestock.

Range[edit]

For the Utah Serviceberry, the core mountainous range is delimited by the ColoradoNew MexicoWyoming Rocky Mountains[1] in the east, the Front ranges of Utah at the west, and the south in central Arizona-western New Mexico by the Mogollon Rim and White Mountains (Arizona) region[2] of east Arizona and New Mexico.

The rest of the range is centered on mountain ranges of the Great Basin, and extending west to the Sierra Nevada and chaparral and woodlands in California and as far south as extreme northern Baja California, and then in the north to southwestern Montana with Idaho.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Little. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 3, Minor Western Hardwoods, Map 17, Amelanchier utahensis.
  2. ^ Little. Map 17, Amelanchier utahensis.
  3. ^ Little. Map 17, Amelanchier utahensis.
  • Little. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 3, Minor Western Hardwoods, Little, Elbert L, 1976, US Government Printing Office. Library of Congress No. 79-653298. Map 17, Amelanchier utahensis.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The fully documented scientific name of Utah serviceberry is Amelanchier utahensis Koehne (Rosaceae) [18,23,46]. Taxonomy in the Amelanchier genus has historically been disputed, with A. utahensis occasionally considered to be a variety or subspecies of Saskatoon serviceberry (A. alnifolia ) [4,31,46,47]. There are 2 subspecies of Utah serviceberry:  A. utahensis ssp. covillei (Standley) Clokey [18,23,24] and A. utahensis ssp. utahensis Koehne [23].

Utah serviceberry hybridizes with Saskatoon serviceberry [4,33].

  • 23. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume I--checklist. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 622 p. [23877]
  • 24. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 18. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 46. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 33. Plummer, A. Perry; Christensen, Donald R.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1968. Restoring big-game range in Utah. Publ. No. 68-3. Ephraim, UT: Utah Division of Fish and Game. 183 p. [4554]
  • 31. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702]
  • 47. Williams, Stephen E.; Aldon, Earl F. 1976. Endomycorrhizal (vesicular arbuscular) associations of some arid zone shrubs. The Southwestern Naturalist. 20(4): 437-444. [5517]
  • 4. Blauer, A. Clyde; Plummer, A. Perry; McArthur, E. Durant; [and others]. 1975. Characteristics and hybridization of important Intermountain shrubs. I. Rose family. Res. Pap. INT-169. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 36 p. [472]

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Common Names

Utah serviceberry

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