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Overview

Brief Summary

The wild black cherry is an ornamental bush, imported from eastern North America, where it reaches tree heights. At the beginning of the 20th century, a bush variety was planted in the Netherlands on a large scale as undergrowth in production forests. This bush grows on poor sandy soils and in the dunes. It developed extremely rapidly at the cost of indigenous forest plants and became such a plague that foresters gave it the nickname 'forest pest'. Combating the forest pest has turned out to be a never-ending task. Remnants of the plant remaining in the ground simply re-root. And the very tasty cherries are carried over distances by both birds and mammals.
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© Copyright Ecomare

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Rosaceae Rose family

    David A. Marquis

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina), the largest of the native  cherries and the only one of commercial value, is found  throughout the Eastern United States. It is also known as wild  black cherry, rum cherry, and mountain black cherry. Large,  high-quality trees suited for furniture wood or veneer are found  in large numbers in a more restricted commercial range on the  Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia  (36,44). Smaller quantities of high-quality trees grow in  scattered locations along the southern Appalachian Mountains and  the upland areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elsewhere, black  cherry is often a small, poorly formed tree of relatively low  commercial value, but important to wildlife for its fruit.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Rose Family (Rosaceae). Native trees are 38 m tall; bark of larger trunks fissured and scaly, but thin. Leaves: alternate, simple, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 5-15 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, with finely toothed margins, glabrous or commonly with reddish hairs along the midrib beneath, near the base. Inflorescence is an oblong-cylindric raceme that is 10-15 cm long at the end of leafy twigs of the season, with numerous flowers; calyx tube of short lobes, petals 5, white. Fruits: berry-like, about 8-10 mm in diameter, obovoid, black when ripe; seed a single, black, ovoid stone 6-8 mm long. The common name is from the black color of the ripe fruits.

Variation within the species: The species has a number of geographic variants:

Var. eximia (Small) Little - Edwards Plateau of central TX

Var. rufula (Woot. & Standl.) McVaugh - TX, NM, AZ

Var. serotina - widespread in the eastern US

Var. virens (Woot. & Standl.) McVaugh - TX, NM, AZ

Var. salicifolia Koehne - Mexico and Guatemala

Var. serotina may reach 38 meters tall in the eastern US, but southwestern US varieties typically are smaller; southwestern black cherry (var. rufula) seldom grows taller than 9 m, and escarpment black cherry (var. exima) no taller than 15 meters. The leaves of var. serotina are thin compared to those of the other varieties. Domesticants and wild populations of P. serotina in Mexico and Central America, called "capulin" (var. salicifolia), have larger (2 cm) fruits, apparently through selection by native peoples. Plants previously recognized as P. serotina var. alabamensis (Mohr) Little have been taxonomically returned to species rank, as P. alabamensis Mohr.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

This native plant is a woody tree up to 80' tall. It has a central trunk at the base and a crown of leafy branches that is longer than wide. The tips of growing branches are green and glabrous, but they soon become reddish brown and woody. The bark of larger branches is relatively smooth and reddish brown. The lenticels (air pores) of this bark are conspicuously white and horizontally flattened. On older trees, the coarse bark of the trunk becomes brown-black and rough-textured. The smaller branches and twigs produce alternate leaves. The blades of these leaves are up to 6" long and 2" across; they are ovate, narrowly ovate, or lanceolate-ovate in shape and finely serrated along their margins. The tiny teeth of these margins curve inward. The upper surface of each leaf is green and glabrous, while the lower surface is light green. The lower surface is usually glabrous, but sometimes there are fine hairs along the central vein. The tip of each leaf blade is slender and acute, while its base is rounded or wedge-shaped. The slender petioles of the leaves are up to 1" long; each petiole has a pair of tiny nectaries near the leaf blade. Elongated racemes of flowers are produced from short leafy branches; they are ascending, widely spreading, or descending (often the latter). Each raceme is 4-6" long and densely packed with flowers (see Close-up of Raceme). Each flower is ½" across, consisting of 5 white petals, 5 green sepals, 15-22 stamens, and a central pistil with a flattened stigma. The petals are obovate in shape and much longer than the sepals. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer and lasts about 2-3 weeks. Each flower is replaced by a globoid fleshy drupe about 1/3" across. Immature drupes are green, but they become dark red and finally purple-black at maturity during the fall. Each drupe contains a single stone with a smooth surface. The flesh of a mature drupe is sweet and slightly bitter. The root system consists of woody taproot. This tree spreads by reseeding itself.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Alternative names

Wild black cherry, mountain black cherry, rum cherry

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Wild Black Cherry is common throughout Illinois; it occurs in every county (see Distribution Map). Habitats include deciduous woodlands (dominated by oak, basswood-maple, & others), open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, limestone glades, fence rows, powerline clearances, vacant lots, and waste areas. Wild Black Cherry is a pioneer species that thrives on disturbance in wooded areas. It is one of the woody species that can invade prairies and meadows in the absence of fire.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Black cherry grows in eastern North America from western Minnesota south
to eastern Texas, and eastward to the Atlantic from central Florida to
Nova Scotia [34]. Outlying populations grow in central Texas; in the
mountains of western Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; and south in Mexico
to Guatemala [34]. The varieties are distributed as follows [34]:

typical black cherry (var. serotina) - from Nova Scotia west to
central Minnesota, south to east Texas, and east to central Florida.

Alabama black cherry (var. alabamensis) - from eastern Georgia west to
northeastern Alabama, and south to northwestern Florida. Also local
in South Carolina and North Carolina.

escarpment cherry (var. exima) - found in the Edwards Plateau region
of central Texas.

southwestern black cherry (var. rufula) - in the mountains from
western Texas to central Arizona, and south to northern and central
Mexico.
  • 34. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

7 Lower Basin and Range
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains

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Occurrence in North America

AL AZ AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA
KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO
NE NH NJ NM NY NC OH OK PA RI
SC TN TX VT VA WV WI NB NS ON
PQ MEXICO

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Black cherry grows from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick west to  Southern Quebec and Ontario into Michigan and eastern Minnesota;  south to Iowa, extreme eastern Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas,  then east to central Florida. Several varieties extend the range:  Alabama black cherry (var. alabamensis) is found in  eastern Georgia, northeastern Alabama, and northwest Florida with  local stands in North and South Carolina; escarpment cherry (var.  eximia) grows in the Edwards Plateau region of central  Texas; southwestern black cherry (var. rufula) ranges  from the mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas west to Arizona and south  into Mexico; capulin black cherry (var. salicifolia) is native  from central Mexico to Guatemala and is naturalized in several  South American countries.

   
  -The native range of black cherry.


  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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Adaptation

Black cherry is a shade-intolerant species that primarily occurs in successional vegetation or in forest openings as well as in old fields and along fencerows. It usually occurs as scattered individuals in various types of mesic woods and second-growth hardwood forests; at elevations of 0-1520 meters. Black cherry in the southwestern US is confined to canyons, valleys, and rich bottomlands. Flowering: May-July (March-April in the Southwest); fruiting: June-October.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Widespread in eastern North America, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec, Canada, Minnesota and North Dakota, southward to Florida and east Texas, with outlying populations in central Texas, west Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, and south in Mexico to Guatemala. Known to be highly invasive in forests of Holland and other countries of Western Europe; also naturalized in northern South America. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Black cherry is a deciduous, single-stemmed, medium- to large-sized
tree. In the forest it typically has a large, straight, branch-free
bole with a narrow crown, but in openings it tends to have a shorter
trunk and a broad, irregular crown [26]. In the East, typical black
cherry (var. serotina) may reach 125 feet (38 m) in height and 4 feet
(1.2 m) or more in diameter [17]. Southwestern varieties are typically
much smaller. Southwestern black cherry (var. rufula) seldom grows
taller than 30 feet (9 m), and escarpment black cherry (var. exima)
taller than 50 feet (15 m) [50].

Black cherry has a shallow and spreading root system. Most roots occur
within 24 inches (61 cm) of the soil surface [39]. Bark on young stems
is thin, smooth, and reddish-brown to nearly black. On large trunks the
bark is fissured and scaly but remains thin [20,23]. Black cherry has
simple, 2- to 6-inch-long, thick and leathery leaves [26]. White
flowers occur in 3- to 4-inch-long, oblong-cylindric racemes at the end
of leafy twigs of the season [17]. The fruit is a nearly globular,
one-seeded, purplish-black to black, 0.5 inch (1.2 cm) diameter drupe
[11,20]. The seed is an oblong-ovoid stone about 0.33 inch (0.75 cm)
long [59].
  • 50. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 17. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 59. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 20. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 11. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]
  • 23. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry. 63(4): 248-251. [9915]
  • 26. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Wild Black Cherry is common throughout Illinois; it occurs in every county (see Distribution Map). Habitats include deciduous woodlands (dominated by oak, basswood-maple, & others), open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, limestone glades, fence rows, powerline clearances, vacant lots, and waste areas. Wild Black Cherry is a pioneer species that thrives on disturbance in wooded areas. It is one of the woody species that can invade prairies and meadows in the absence of fire.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: mesic, xeric

Black cherry occurs in numerous mesic woods and second-growth hardwood
forests in the eastern United States and Canada. It is also common in
old fields and along fence rows. It grows on a variety of soil types,
textures, and drainages but is most abundant on mesic sites [39]. Black
cherry attains its greatest abundance on the Allegheny Plateau, where it
is found on nearly all soil types. In this region it grows somewhat
better on middle and lower slopes of eastern and northern exposures than
on the dry soils associated with south- or west-facing slopes [39].
This mesophytic tendency becomes even more pronounced farther south. In
the southern Appalachians, black cherry generally grows as scattered
individuals with other mesophytic hardwoods and occasionally forms pure
stands at high elevations [39]. In the Great Smoky Mountains, black
cherry is best represented in cove forests below 5,500 feet (1,676 m)
[63]. In southern Wisconsin, understory black cherry is a conspicuous
component of xeric oak forests and savannas [5].

In the southwestern United States, black cherry is confined to canyons,
valleys, and rich bottomlands [5,57].
  • 5. Auclair, Allan N.; Cottam, Grant. 1971. Dynamics of black cherry (Prunus serotina Erhr.) in southern Wisconsin oak forests. Ecological Monographs. 41(2): 153-177. [8102]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 57. Van Auken, O. W.; Ford, A. L.; Allen, J. L. 1981. An ecological comparison of upland deciduous and evergreen forests of central Texas. American Journal of Botany. 68(9): 1249-1256. [10559]
  • 63. Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs. 26(1): 1-79. [11108]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: codominant, cover

Black cherry occurs as scattered individuals in numerous forest types of
the East (see SAF cover types listed). It is codominant in only one
cover type, the black cherry-maple type (SAF 28) found in the Allegheny
Plateau and Allegheny Mountain sections of New York, Pennsylvania,
Maryland, and West Virginia [18]. In this type, black cherry is a
primary component along with red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (A.
saccharum), and white ash (Fraxinus americana). Other common associates
include American beech (Fagus grandifolia), eastern hemlock (Tsuga
canadensis), sweet birch (Betula lenta), yellow birch (B.
alleghaniensis), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), cucumbertree
(Magnolia acuminata), oak (Quercus spp.), and hickory (Carya spp.)
[1,5,29,41].
  • 18. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
  • 1. Adams, Dwight E.; Anderson, Roger C. 1980. Species response to a moisture gradient in central Illinois forests. American Journal of Botany. 67(3): 381-392. [13295]
  • 5. Auclair, Allan N.; Cottam, Grant. 1971. Dynamics of black cherry (Prunus serotina Erhr.) in southern Wisconsin oak forests. Ecological Monographs. 41(2): 153-177. [8102]
  • 29. Jones, Steven M. 1988. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Natural Areas Journal. 8(1): 31-37. [11008]
  • 41. Marquis, David A.; Gearhart, Porter. 1983. Cherry-maple. In: Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agric. Handb. No. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 137-140. [12655]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: hardwood

14 Northern pin oak
17 Pin cherry
19 Gray birch - red maple
20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
21 Eastern white pine
22 White pine - hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
27 Sugar maple
28 Black cherry - maple
31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
34 Red spruce - Fraser fir
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
43 Bear oak
44 Chestnut oak
45 Pitch pine
51 White pine - chestnut oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
55 Northern red oak
57 Yellow-poplar
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
60 Beech - sugar maple
64 Sassafras - persimmon
66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper
68 Mesquite
70 Longleaf pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
85 Slash pine - hardwood
108 Red maple
109 Hawthorn
110 Black oak

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna
K081 Oak savanna
K084 Cross Timbers
K086 Juniper - oak savanna
K087 Mesquite - oak savanna
K089 Black Belt
K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K101 Elm - ash forest
K102 Beech - maple forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalacian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K109 Transition between K104 and K106
K110 Northeastern oak - pine forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K115 Sand pine scrub
K116 Subtropical pine forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES19 Aspen - birch
FRES32 Texas savanna

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Soils and Topography

Throughout its range in eastern North America, black cherry grows  well on a wide variety of soils if summer growing conditions are  cool and moist. In Canada it grows near sea level, whereas in  Appalachian coves it exists at elevations up to 1520 m (5,000 ft)  or more (36). Best development occurs on the Allegheny Plateau at  elevations of 300 to 790 m (1,000 to 2,600 ft).

    On the Allegheny Plateau, black cherry develops well on all soils  except for the very wettest and very driest (36). There seem to  be no major changes in site quality between soils developed from  glacial till and those of residual origin. Black cherry tolerates  a wide range of soil drainage. It grows about the same on  well-drained sites as on somewhat poorly drained sites but shows  rapid loss in productivity with increasingly wetter conditions  (6,12). The dry soils of ridge tops and of south- and west-facing  slopes are less favorable for black cherry than the moist soils  of middle and lower slopes on north and east exposures (15,36)  though these effects are much less pronounced on the Allegheny  Plateau than in the steep topography of the Appalachians.

    Though great diversity exists, most of the forest soils important  to black cherry are very strongly acid, relatively infertile, and  have high, coarse fragment content throughout their profile.  Kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and is responsible for  relatively low cation exchange properties (14). The bulk of the  upland soils have textures that range from sandy loam to silty  clay loam, and many soils have developed fragipans that impede  drainage and restrict root growth (6,12,59). The large majority  of upland soils are classified as Inceptisols or Ultisols  according to present taxonomy, but Alfisols are also frequently  present in colluvial landscape positions (59,75).

    Further southward throughout the Appalachian Highlands, black  cherry generally grows on good to excellent sites as a scattered  individual in association with other mesophytic hardwoods  (36,74), and sometimes in nearly pure stands at high elevations  on soils with impeded drainage. In the Lake States, black cherry  prefers deep, well-drained soils and is adversely affected by  increasingly poorer soil drainage (9).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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Climate

Black cherry and its varieties grow under a wide range of climatic  conditions. In the heart of the commercial range on the Allegheny  Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, the climate is cool, moist,  and temperate with average annual precipitation of 970 to 1120 mm  (38 to 44 in) well distributed throughout the year. Summer  precipitation averages 510 to 610 mm (20 to 24 in), and the  frost-free growing season is 120 to 155 days. Winter snowfalls  average 89 to 203 cm (35 to 80 in), and 45 to 90 days have snow  cover of 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. Mean annual potential  evapotranspiration approximates 430 to 710 mm (17 to 28 in), and  mean annual water surplus is 100 to 610 mm (4 to 24 in). January  temperatures average a maximum of 1° to 6° C (34°  to 43° F) and a minimum of -11° to -6° C (12°  to 22° F). July temperatures average a maximum of 27°  to 29° C (80° to 85° F) and a minimum of 11°  to 16° C (52° to 60° F) (42).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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Dispersal

Establishment

Seeds may be produced on trees as young as 10 years, but maximum production in natural stands occurs on trees 30-100 years old. Some seed is produced yearly, with good crops produced at 1-5-year intervals. High proportions of the seeds are viable. Because of long-distance seed dispersal by birds and mammals, seedlings are often abundant in sites with no or few reproductive black cherry trees. Seeds that pass through the digestive tracts of passerine birds also have higher germination rates than undigested seeds.

Seeds from one crop germinate over a period of 3 years –– this delayed germination allows large numbers of seeds to be banked in the forest floor. After cold stratification, seeds germinate in loose soil and forest litter; germination is higher in litter than in mineral soil. Seedlings typically grow to a height of 5-10 cm within 30 days after germination.

Black cherry also reproduces by stump sprouts following cutting or fire, and sprouting frequency remains high for trees up to about 60 years of age.

Black cherry rarely occurs in the canopy of late successional deciduous forests but buried seeds are present and an abundance of small seedlings is common in the understory. These grow slowly in dense shade, sometimes reaching 15 cm in height in 3-4 years, but any canopy opening will release this bank of suppressed plants, which grow rapidly to overtop shade-tolerant associates. Black cherry saplings in the understory may repeatedly die back to the stem base and resprout and can persist for 40-60 years by maintaining a small above-ground size until released. Because of its abundant soil-stored seeds and sprouting ability, black cherry may dominate secondary succession following logging, fire, or wind-throw. Trees have been reported to grow to more than 250 years, although mortality increases rapidly after 80-100 years.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract honeybees, bumblebees, Halictid bees, Andrenid bees, Syrphid flies, Blow flies, and miscellaneous other flies. These insects cross-pollinate the flowers. The extra-floral nectaries attract ants, which protect the leaves from some leaf-chewing insects. There are many insects that use Wild Black Cherry as a source of food, particularly the leaves. This includes the caterpillars of the butterflies Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Red-Spotted Purple), Strymon titus (Coral Hairstreak), and Papilio glaucus (Tiger Swallowtail). The caterpillars of many moth species feed on Wild Black Cherry; some of these species are listed in the Moth Table. Other insects that feed on Wild Black Cherry and other cherries (Prunus spp.) include the flea beetles Altica ignita and Crepidodera violacea, the leaf beetles Eusattodera thoracicus and Pyrrhalta cavicollis, and the sawfly larvae of Caliroa cerasi, Onycholyda luteicornis, and Dimorphopteryx abnormis. The fruit of Wild Black Cherry is an important source of food to many upland gamebirds and songbirds (see the Bird Table for a listing of these species); the fruit is also eaten by the Black Bear, Gray Fox, Red Fox, Eastern Chipmunk, tree squirrels (Red, Gray, Fox), Opossum, Raccoon, and White-Footed Mouse. These animals spread the seeds to new areas. White-Tailed Deer browse on the leaves and twigs, even though they contain toxic cyanide compounds. In general, the value of Wild Black Cherry to wildlife is very high.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Flower-Visiting Insects of Wild Black Cherry in Illinois

Prunus serotina (Wild Black Cherry)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; in addition to the flower visitors, Prunus serotina has insects that visit its extra-floral nectaries, as described below; some observations are from Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus griseocallis sn, Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada illinoiensis sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn fq, Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda sn cp fq, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum cressonii sn cp, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn cp; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena ceanothi (Kr), Andrena crataegi sn, Andrena cressonii sn cp fq, Andrena erythrogaster sn (Rb, Kr), Andrena forbesii sn cp (Rb, Kr), Andrena hippotes sn (Rb, Kr), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn cp fq (Rb, Kr), Andrena miserabilis bipunctata sn cp fq, Andrena nigrae (Kr), Andrena nuda sn cp (Rb, Kr), Andrena pruni sn cp fq, Andrena rugosa sn, Andrena sayi sn cp, Andrena tridens (Kr), Andrena virginiana (Kr)

Wasps
Vespidae: Polistes fuscata

Sawflies
Tenthredinidae: Dolerus sericeus

Flies
Scatopsidae: Scatopse notata fq; Simuliidae: Cnephia pecuarum; Stratiomyidae: Stratiomys normula; Syrphidae: Brachyopa vacua, Eristalinus aeneus fq, Eristalis dimidiatus, Mallota bautias, Myolepta strigilata, Orthonevra nitida, Orthonevra pictipennis, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Sphegina rufiventris, Syritta pipiens, Syrphus ribesii, Trichopsomyia apisaon; Empididae: Rhamphomyia sordida; Conopidae: Myopa vesiculosa; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata, Siphona geniculata; Sarcophagidae: Ravinia anxia; Calliphoridae: Calliphora vicina, Cynomya cadaverina, Lucilia illustris, Lucilia sericata, Phormia regina; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus, Vanessa virginiensis

Beetles
Cerambycidae: Molorchus bimaculatus

Extra-floral nectaries:

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum illinoensis, Lasioglossum imitatus, Lasioglossum versatus; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena erythrogaster, Andrena illinoiensis, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata

Ants
Formicidae: Crematogaster lineolata, Formica fusca

Flies
Syrphidae: Blera umbratilis; Calliphoridae: Cynomya cadaverina

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Foodplant / saprobe
clustered conidioma of Foveostrama coelomycetous anamorph of Dermea cerasi is saprobic on twig of Prunus serotina

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Associated Forest Cover

Throughout the eastern United States, black cherry is a component  of many forest cover types (18). It is primarily a northern  hardwood species, occurring as a common associate in most cover  types of this group. Northern hardwood stands that contain large  amounts of black cherry are recognized as a separate type: Black  Cherry-Maple (Society of American Foresters Type 28) is found in  the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain sections of  Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, and West Virginia.

    Black cherry is also found as a minor component of pine and  hemlock types and other northern hardwood types in the Northern  Forest Region, as well as upland oaks and other central types in  the -central Forest Region. Black cherry is mentioned as a  component of the following types:

    14 Northern Pin Oak
  17 Pin Cherry
  119 Gray Birch-Red Maple
  20 White Pine-Northern Red Oak- Red Maple
  21 Eastern White Pine
  22 White Pine-Hemlock
  23 Eastern Hemlock
  25 Sugar Maple-Beech-Yellow Birch
  28 Black Cherry-Maple
  31 Red Spruce-Sugar Maple-Beech
  43 Bear Oak
  44 Chestnut Oak
  51 White Pine-Chestnut Oak
  52 White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak
  55 Northern Red Oak
  57 Yellow-Poplar
  59 Yellow-Poplar-White Oak-Northern Red Oak
  60 Beech-Sugar Maple
  64 Sassafras-Persimmon
  108 Red Maple
  109 Hawthorn
  110 Black Oak

    Other tree associates of black cherry in addition to those  mentioned in the type names include white ash (Fraxinus  americana), cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata), sweet  birch (Betula lenta), American basswood (Tilia  americana), butternut (Juglans cinerea), scarlet oak  (Quercus coccinea), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), quaking  and bigtooth aspens (Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata), 
American elm and rock elm (Ulmus americana and U.  thomasii). Important small tree associates include striped  maple (Acer pensylvanicum), pin cherry (Prunus  pensylvanica), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya uirginiana),  American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), and downy  serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea). Shrubs common in  forest stands that contain significant amounts of black cherry  include witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), hobblebush  (Viburnum alnifolium), and various other viburnums.  Hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula), New York  fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis), shorthusk grass (Bracheylytrum  erectum), violets (Viola spp.), wood sorrel (Oxalis  spp.), asters (Aster spp.), and club  mosses (Lycopodium spp.) are also prevalent in  the understory in many areas.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

The most important defoliating insects  attacking black cherry include the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma  americanum) and the cherry scallop shell moth (Hydria  prunivorata) (3). Infestations of these insects are  sporadically heavy, with some apparent growth loss and occasional  mortality if heavy defoliations occur several years in a row.

    Attacks by numerous species of insects cause gum defects in black  cherry, resulting in reduced timber quality. Gum spots in the  wood are often associated with the Agromyzid cambium miner (Phytobia  pruni), the peach bark beetle (Phloeotribus liminaris),  and by the lesser peachtree borer (Synathedon pictipes)  (35,40,66). A wide variety of insects can cause injury to  terminal shoots of black cherry seedlings and saplings, resulting  in stem deformity. Archips spp. and Contarinia  cerasiserotinae are among the more important (64).

    The most common disease is cherry leaf spot caused by Coccomyces  lutescens (36). Large numbers of black cherry seedlings are  sometimes weakened or killed by this disease. Repeated attacks  reduce the vigor of larger trees. Most other foliage diseases  cause little damage.

    Black knot, a native disease caused by the fungus Apiosporina  morbosa is common on black cherry (27). It causes elongated  rough black swellings several times the diameter of the normal  stem. Small twigs may be killed within a year after infection.  Large cankerous swellings, a foot or more in length, may occur on  the trunks of larger trees, and where several such lesions are  scattered along the bole, the tree is worthless for lumber. Cytospora  leucostoma is the cause of a canker disease responsible for  widespread branch mortality of black cherry in Pennsylvania (26).  Common infection courts are decaying fruit racemes and bark  fissures caused by excessive gum production following passage of  the larvae of Phytobia pruni, a cambium mining insect.

    Several basidiomycete fungi that cause root and butt rot of living  black cherry trees include Armillaria mellea, Coniophora  cerebella, Polyporus berkeleyi, and Tyromyces spragueiMany other fungi cause decay of the main trunk; these include  Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Poria prunicola. P.  mutans, and Laetiporus sulphureus (29,36). Damage  caused by glaze storms exposes black cherry to infection by  top-rot fungi (16).

    Porcupines girdle and kill black cherry trees and also consume  bark, thereby providing entry points for fungi. Meadow mice and  meadow voles girdle the stem near the ground (37). Such damage  where grass or other herbaceous cover provides suitable habitat  for the mice is probably one of the major causes of planting  failure in unregenerated clearcuts and old fields.

    White-tailed deer, rabbits, and hare feed on black cherry  seedlings (36). In parts of Pennsylvania, deer browsing is the  most serious problem of black cherry. Reproduction sometimes is  completely eliminated by browsing, and most regeneration cuts are  affected by reduced stocking, delays in establishment, and shifts  in species composition toward less palatable beech and striped  maple (50,57). Damage is dramatic after clearcutting, but damage  to advance reproduction also is important.

    In areas of high deer population such as Pennsylvania, successful  reproduction can be assured only where advance seedlings are so  abundant that deer cannot eat all of them in the few years  required for them to grow out of reach (55,57). Black cherry  fares somewhat better than associated species such as sugar  maple, red maple, white ash, and yellowpoplar, which are  preferred deer browse. Where successful regeneration develops  after clearcutting in this region, it is often nearly pure black  cherry. Guidelines and techniques for regenerating stands with  black cherry have been developed (56,58).

    Cherry is somewhat more vulnerable to storm damage than many of  its associates because it often towers above the general canopy  in mixed stands. Sapling and pole-sized trees are frequently bent  by glaze or wet snow, causing loss of the leader and severe  crooks that make them unsuitable for sawtimber. Cherry trees make  remarkable recovery after breakage, however, with little loss of  diameter growth. Decay spreads more slowly in cherry than in some  of the associated species, so long-term effects are less severe  than they seem to be at first (36,65).

    Cherry trees of all sizes are highly susceptible to fire injury.  Even large trees are killed by moderate to severe fire, but most  resprout unless the fire was unusually hot. Black cherry is  intolerant of flooding. Of 39 species studied in a Tennessee  flood test, black cherry was the most sensitive to high water  (28).

    Certain herbaceous plants interfere with establishment of black  cherry regeneration through an allelopathic mechanism. Flat top  aster (Aster umbellatus), rough stemmed goldenrod (Solidago  rugosa), brackenfern (Pteridium aquilinum) and wild  oatgrass (Danthonia compressa) (30) release chemicals  from their leaves or roots that sometimes interfere with black  cherry growth and development. Woodland fern and grasses may also  interfere with black cherry regeneration, through a complex of  mechanisms that involve both light and nitrogen effects (31,34).  Black cherry may interfere with regeneration of other tree  species, such as red maple (32), but this has not been  investigated thoroughly.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

Black cherry does not require scarified seedbeds. Controlled burning
following timber harvest is not necessary for black cherry regeneration
[41].

Black cherry sprouts prolifically following fire. However, this
depletes its underground carbohydrate reserves and leaves it in a
weakened condition. A second fire within a year or two would probably
kill any seedlings and saplings that survived the first fire by
resprouting [10,25].
  • 10. Boyer, William D. 1990. Growing-season burns for control of hardwoods in longleaf pine stands. Res. Pap. SO-256. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [14604]
  • 25. Wade, D. D.; Lundsford, J. 1990. Fire as a forest management tool: prescribed burning in the southern United States. Unasylva. 41: 28-38. [16792]
  • 41. Marquis, David A.; Gearhart, Porter. 1983. Cherry-maple. In: Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agric. Handb. No. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 137-140. [12655]

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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: density, frequency, hardwood, prescribed fire

In 4- to 6-year-old northern Alabama clearcuts, black cherry saplings
and coppice sprouts regenerated quickly following top-killing broadcast
burns. Three to four years after burning, the density and frequency of
stems greater than 4.5 feet (1.4 m) tall was about equal to preburn
levels [28].

In North Carolina, 1-inch-diameter (2.5 cm) black cherry that were
top-killed following a winter prescribed fire quickly sprouted,
producing an average of eight sprouts per stump. Black cherry sprouts
grew faster than all other hardwood sprouts on the study area. The
average height of the tallest black cherry sprout on each stump was 5.8
feet (1.7 m) 1 year after burning [49].

In oldfields in New York, black cherry seedlings top-killed by fire
averaged 4.4 sprouts per stump [53].

In south-central Wisconsin oak savanna, black cherry seedlings and
saplings top-killed by fire had 1 to 16 sprouts per stump. In general,
black cherry's sprouting response was vigorous, producing larger and
more numerous sprouts than than black, white, or bur oak [25].

The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and
eastern white pine stand in Michigan
and the Research Paper by Bowles and
others 2007
provide information on prescribed fire and postfire response of
several plant species, including black cherry, that was not available when
this species review was written.
  • 53. Swan, Frederick R., Jr. 1970. Post-fire response of four plant communities in south-central New York state. Ecology. 51(6): 1074-1082. [3446]
  • 28. Huntley, Jimmy C.; McGee, Charles E. 1981. Timber and wildlife implications of fire in young upland hardwoods. In: Barnett, James P., ed. Proceedings, 1st biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1980 November 6-7; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-34. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 56-66. [12080]
  • 25. Wade, D. D.; Lundsford, J. 1990. Fire as a forest management tool: prescribed burning in the southern United States. Unasylva. 41: 28-38. [16792]
  • 49. Sanders, D. L.; Van Lear, D. H.; Guynn, D. C. 1987. Prescribed burning in mature pine-hardwood stands--effects on hardwoods and small mammals. In: Phillips, Douglas R., compiler. Proceedings, 4th biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1987 November 4-6; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-42. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 93-96. [15668]

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Plant Response to Fire

Black cherry typically sprouts when aboveground portions are killed by
fire. It is generally considered a prolific sprouter. Each top-killed
individual produces several sprouts that grow rapidly.

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

More info for the terms: density, fire severity, flame length, hardwood, prescribed fire, severity, wildfire

The effects of fire on black cherry vary depending on fire severity and
stem diameter. A large percentage of seedlings and saplings are
generally top-killed by low-severity fires, but larger individuals may
be unaffected. As fire severity increases, the percentage of tree-sized
individuals killed also increases.

An April prescribed fire in a south-central Wisconsin bur and white oak
savanna killed only 2 out of 141 black cherry seedlings and saplings.
The others either resprouted, suffered only partial scarring, or were
unharmed. The percentage of foliage killed was inversely related to
stem diameter. Nearly all seedlings were top-killed, but only a small
percentage of plants 4 inches (10 cm) d.b.h. were affected. In general,
black cherry was more susceptible to fire damage than either species of
oak [25].

Low-intensity prescribed surface fires (mean flame length > 1 foot [0.3
m], mean rate of spread of 10.8 feet [3.3 m] per minute) in a
30-year-old mixed hardwood stand in central Wisconsin top-killed 67 to
100 percent of saplings less than 4 inches (10 cm) d.b.h., but did not
top-kill any black cherry greater than 4 inches (10 cm) d.b.h. One year
after the fire, seedling density was reduced by about 35 percent, from
11,400 to 7,500 per acre (28,250-18,500/ha) [48].

Following a wildfire in south-central New York, 12 percent of 4 inch (10
cm) d.b.h. and smaller black cherry in old fields were killed. The rest
were top-killed and later sprouted [53].

In longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) stands in Alabama, two summer
prescribed burns spaced 2 years apart killed small black cherry less
than 1 inch d.b.h. These plants sprouted after the first fire but not
after the second [10].

Following an early spring, low-intensity prescribed fire in a young
black oak (Quercus velutina)-black cherry forest in Connecticut, about
15 percent of 1- to 4-inch-diameter black cherry were top-killed. No
4- to 6-inch-diameter trees were affected [45].
  • 53. Swan, Frederick R., Jr. 1970. Post-fire response of four plant communities in south-central New York state. Ecology. 51(6): 1074-1082. [3446]
  • 10. Boyer, William D. 1990. Growing-season burns for control of hardwoods in longleaf pine stands. Res. Pap. SO-256. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [14604]
  • 25. Wade, D. D.; Lundsford, J. 1990. Fire as a forest management tool: prescribed burning in the southern United States. Unasylva. 41: 28-38. [16792]
  • 45. Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H.; Taylor, Sally. 1971. Prescribed burning in southern New England: introduction to long-range studies. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1970 August 20-21; Fredericton, NB. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 267-286. [15704]
  • 48. Reich, Peter B.; Abrams, Marc D.; Ellsworth, David S.; [and others]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: hardwood, severity

Black cherry's thin bark (about 0.2 inches [5 cm]) has poor insulating
properties [23]. When the boles of black cherry trees were heated with
a propane torch, the cambium reached lethal temperatures faster than any
other eastern hardwood tested. The thin bark makes trees highly
susceptible to girdling, and black cherry is usually killed or
top-killed by fires of moderate severity. Trees larger than about 4 to
6 inches in diameter, however, may survive light surface fires
[39,45,48].
  • 23. Hare, Robert C. 1965. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry. 63(4): 248-251. [9915]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 45. Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H.; Taylor, Sally. 1971. Prescribed burning in southern New England: introduction to long-range studies. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1970 August 20-21; Fredericton, NB. No. 10. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 267-286. [15704]
  • 48. Reich, Peter B.; Abrams, Marc D.; Ellsworth, David S.; [and others]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the term: root crown

survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex

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Fire Ecology

More info for the term: root crown

Black cherry is very susceptible to fire injury but typically resprouts
from the root crown or stump [55].

Considerable amounts of black cherry seed are stored in the soil [36].
The seed's stony endocarp and the soil provide some insulation from fire
[22]. Although not documented, some soil-stored seeds presumably
survive at least light fires and contribute to postfire seedling
establishment.

Birds and animals may distribute some seed into burned areas. However,
as a means of postfire recovery, this is probably of minor importance.
  • 22. Hare, Robert C. 1961. Heat effects on living plants. Occ. Pap. 183. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,Southern Forest Experiment Station. 32 p. [6708]
  • 36. Marquis, David A. 1975. Seed storage and germination under northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forestry Resources. 5: 478-484. [6684]
  • 55. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 1989. Final environmental impact statement. Vegetation management in the Coastal Plain/Piedmont. Vol. 1. Management Bulletin R8-MB-23. Atlanta, GA. 351 p. [10220]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: cover, succession

Black cherry is a seral, shade-intolerant, gap-phase species [13]. It
rarely occurs in the canopy of late successional deciduous forests but
buried seed and seedlings are often present in the understory.
Seedlings may survive in the understory for about 5 years but then die
or die-back to the stem base unless released [5,39]. Seedlings that die
are soon replaced because of the abundance of buried seed. Any
disturbance which opens the canopy will release this bank of suppressed
seedlings. Once released, young black cherry grow rapidly and quickly
fill the gap, overtopping shade-tolerant associates.

Because of its abundant soil-stored seeds and prolific sprouting
ability, black cherry dominates secondary succession following logging,
fire, or wind-throw [44]. The Society of American Forester's black
cherry - maple cover type (SAF 28) is a second-growth or intermediate
successional stage created by widespread clearcutting at the turn of the
century. This type is successional to beech-hemlock-sugar maple [18].

In bur and white oak (Quercus macrocarpa, Q. alba) woodlands in southern
Wisconsin, black cherry accounts for about one-half of the total number
of seedlings and saplings but is largely absent from the overstory.
Under the shade of the oaks, black cherry saplings repeatedly die-back
to the stem base and resprout. Black cherry can persist, by maintaining
a small aboveground size, for 40 to 60 years until released [4,5].

Long-distance seed dispersal by birds is important in the establishment
of black cherry along fence rows and into forest openings, old fields,
and pine plantations [2,51].
  • 18. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]
  • 2. Artigas, Francisco J.; Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1989. Advance regeneration and seed banking of woody plants in Ohio pine plantations: implications for landscape change. Landscape Ecology. 2(3): 139-150. [13633]
  • 4. Auclair, Allan N. 1975. Sprouting response in Prunus serotina Erhr.: Multivariate analysis of site, forest structure and growth rate relationships. American Midland Naturalist. 94(1): 72-87. [15802]
  • 5. Auclair, Allan N.; Cottam, Grant. 1971. Dynamics of black cherry (Prunus serotina Erhr.) in southern Wisconsin oak forests. Ecological Monographs. 41(2): 153-177. [8102]
  • 13. Curtis, John T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 657 p. [7116]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 44. Mulligan, Gerald A.; Munro, Derek B. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds, 51. Prunus virginiana L. and P. serotina Ehrh. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 61(4): 977-992. [12540]
  • 51. Smith, Albert J. 1975. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody plants in a temperate forest sere. Ecology. 56(1): 19-34. [15667]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: frequency, litter, natural, tree

Seed production: In natural stands maximum seed production occurs on
30- to 100-year-old trees. Some seed is produced almost every year,
with good crops produced at 1- to 5-year intervals [39]. In
Pennsylvania, large seed crops occur about every other year [8]. There
are about 4,800 cleaned seeds per pound (10,560/kg) [39].

Dispersal: Seeds are dispersed by gravity, birds, and mammals. The
fruits fall shortly after ripening in late summer or fall. Seeds not
dispersed by animals generally land near the parent tree. Thus the
abundance of seedlings in the understory is related to the number and
distribution of seed trees in the overstory. Because of animal
dispersal, however, black cherry seedlings are often abundant in stands
with no or few seed-producing black cherry trees [1,15,29,41,51].
Germination tests show that black cherry seeds that pass through the
digestive tracts of passerine birds successfully germinate after proper
cold stratification, and have higher germination rates than undigested
seeds [30,51].

Seed quality: Usually over 90 percent of seeds are sound [8,59].

Dormancy and germination: Black cherry seeds require cold
stratification to germinate. This occurs as seeds overwinter on the
forest floor [39]. Black cherry exhibits delayed germination: seeds
from one crop germinate over a period of 3 years. Of seed artificially
sown and buried 1 inch below the soil surface in a northern hardwood
stand in Pennsylvania, 22, 42, and 4 percent germinated the first,
second, and third year, respectively [36]. In another germination
study, 10, 50, and 25 percent germinated 1, 2, and 3 years after burial,
respectively [62]. Delayed germination allows black cherry to bank
large amounts of seed in the forest floor. There are typically hundreds
of thousands of black cherry seeds stored in the soil of black
cherry-maple stands in Pennsylvania in any given year [36]. Each spring
about one-half of these germinate.

Black cherry's moisture and light requirements for germination are not
as exacting as those of its associates [44]. However, moist seedbeds
ensure good germination. Seeds germinate in loose soil and forest
litter, but germination is somewhat higher in litter than mineral soil
[39,44].

Seedling growth and survival: Seedlings typically grow to a height of 2
to 4 inches (5-10 cm) 30 days after germination. In dense shade, they
grow very slowly, sometimes reaching 6 inches (15 cm) in height in 3 or
4 years, but die thereafter unless released [39]. An understory of tiny
black cherry seedlings is common in numerous mixed deciduous forests.
If the canopy is opened due to windthrow, harvest, or other disturbance,
the seedlings survive well and grow rapidly in full sunlight [39].

Vegetative reproduction: Black cherry sprouts vigorously from the stump
following cutting or fire [32,55]. Sprouting frequency of stumps
remains high, probably over 90 percent, for trees up to about 60 years
of age [32].
  • 1. Adams, Dwight E.; Anderson, Roger C. 1980. Species response to a moisture gradient in central Illinois forests. American Journal of Botany. 67(3): 381-392. [13295]
  • 59. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 8. Bjorkbom, J. C. 1979. Seed production and advance regeneration in Allegheny hardwood forests. Res. Pap. NE-435. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. [12526]
  • 15. Downs, Julie A.; Abrams, Marc D. 1991. Composition and structure of an old-growth versus a second-growth white oak forest in southwestern Pennsylvania. In: McCormick, Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 207-223. [15313]
  • 29. Jones, Steven M. 1988. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Natural Areas Journal. 8(1): 31-37. [11008]
  • 30. Krefting, Laurits W.; Roe, Eugene I. 1949. The role of some birds and mammals in seed germination. Ecological Monographs. 19(3): 269-286. [8847]
  • 32. Lamson, Neil I. 1988. Role of stump sprouts in regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E., Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands: Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 31-37. [13932]
  • 36. Marquis, David A. 1975. Seed storage and germination under northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forestry Resources. 5: 478-484. [6684]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 41. Marquis, David A.; Gearhart, Porter. 1983. Cherry-maple. In: Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agric. Handb. No. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 137-140. [12655]
  • 44. Mulligan, Gerald A.; Munro, Derek B. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds, 51. Prunus virginiana L. and P. serotina Ehrh. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 61(4): 977-992. [12540]
  • 51. Smith, Albert J. 1975. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody plants in a temperate forest sere. Ecology. 56(1): 19-34. [15667]
  • 55. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 1989. Final environmental impact statement. Vegetation management in the Coastal Plain/Piedmont. Vol. 1. Management Bulletin R8-MB-23. Atlanta, GA. 351 p. [10220]
  • 62. Wendel, G. W. 1972. Longevity of black cherry seed in the forest floor. Res. Note NE-149. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 4 p. [15666]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

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Tree

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Reaction to Competition

Black cherry is classed as  intolerant of shade. Although black cherry seedlings are common  under uncut stands and survive for 3 to 5 years, they do not live  for extended periods or move up into larger size classes without  moderate to heavy opening of the overstory canopy.

    In sapling and larger sizes, black cherry trees are considered  very intolerant of competition. Cherry trees are found primarily  in the dominant and codominant crown classes. Those individuals  that drop to lower crown levels decline in growth and soon die.  Thus, diameter distribution of black cherry in even-aged stands  follows the bell-shaped curve typical of intolerant species (51).

    Black cherry dominants and codominants respond to thinning with  slight to moderate increases in diameter growth, especially at  ages up to 50 or 60 years (17,36,54). But thinning does not  generally produce a response in trees that have been suppressed.  Even early thinnings and cleanings intended to elevate  intermediate or suppressed cherry to codominate crown positions  generally have failed (13,73).

    Even-aged silviculture best satisfies the silvical requirements  for black cherry regeneration, using either clearcutting where  advance seedlings are already present or shelterwood cutting to  develop them where they are absent (56,58). Advance seedlings and  seed stored in the forest floor generally make retention of seed  trees unnecessary. Uneven-aged silviculture, especially  single-tree selection, tends to gradually eliminate cherry from  the stands, because cherry does Dot move up into the dominant  canopy without at least moderate levels of sunlight (46) . Group  selection cutting might maintain small percentages of cherry in  unevenaged stands, though this has never been demonstrated  clearly.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David A. Marquis

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Rooting Habit

The root system of black cherry is  predominantly spreading and shallow, even in well-drained soils.  Most roots are restricted to the upper 60 cm (24 in) of soil or  less, with occasional sinker roots extending to depths of 90 to  120 cm (36 to 48 in). On wet sites, the tendency toward shallow  rooting is especially pronounced. Because of this tendency to  grow taller than associated species in mixed stands, cherry is   vulnerable to windthrow, especially on poorly drained soils and  at older ages (36).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Black cherry flowers in the spring when the leaves are one-half to fully
expanded. Fruits develop over the spring and summer and ripen by early
to late summer depending on latitude and climate. The fruits fall soon
after ripening. Fruit maturation may vary by as much as 3 weeks on
trees in the same stand [39]. Generalized timing of phenological events
vary regionally as follows [8,39,46,50]:

Northeast Southeast Southwest

Flowering late May-early June March-April
Fruits Ripe late Aug-September June June-August
Seedfall late Aug-October June-early July
  • 50. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 8. Bjorkbom, J. C. 1979. Seed production and advance regeneration in Allegheny hardwood forests. Res. Pap. NE-435. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. [12526]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 46. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]

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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Black cherry readily sprouts from  stumps and the sprouts grow rapidly, especially in full sunlight.  Small, suppressed seedlings that have been released from overhead  shade but which are bent or broken by logging operations will  produce well-formed sprouts from the root collar (63). These  seedling sprouts are an important and highly desirable source of  regeneration. Even large old stumps sometimes are capable of   sprouting; a 258-year-old, 122-cm (48-in) d.b.h. black cherry  sprouted when cut. Maximum sprouting occurs in trees less than 40  or 50 years of age however. Clearcuttings of very young second  growth cherry stands has resulted in third growth cherry stands  in which more than half of the trees were of sprout origin (36).

    Sprouts of cherry tend to have poorer form than comparable  seedlings but grow faster than seedlings during the first 20 to  30 years. Although trees of seedling or seedling-sprout origin  are preferred for timber production, usually several stems of  each sprout clump are capable of growing into high quality  sawtimber (41,78). The incidence of butt rot from the parent  stump is not as great in black cherry sprouts from stumps as  large as 25 cm (10 in) in diameter or from stumps that have been  overgrown by their sprouts by 35 years of age (8). Thus, sprouts  of good form originating low on the stump are not discriminated  against in silvicultural operations.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David A. Marquis

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Seedling Development

Black cherry seeds require a period  of after-ripening before germination will take place (22). Under  natural conditions, this occurs during winter months in the  forest floor. The usual pattern is for seeds of 1 year's crop to  germinate over the following 3 or more years (45,77). Because of  frequent seed crops and delayed germination, often a considerable  quantity of viable cherry seeds is stored in the forest floor   beneath cherry stands, freeing natural regeneration from  dependency on current seed production (45).

    At the time of germination, the endosperm swells and splits the  stone into two halves. Contrary to some beliefs, germination does  not depend upon splitting of the seed coat by frost, or partial  decomposition of the bony seed coat by soil organisms, or being  passed through the digestive tract of birds. Germination is  hypogeous; that is, the cotyledons remain below the soil surface  (22).

    Seedbed requirements for germination are not rigid. Mineral soil  is not required. In fact, germination is somewhat less on mineral  soil than on undisturbed humus or leaf litter (37,43). Few seeds  germinate in areas that have had the organic horizons stripped  off or that are compacted by logging machinery. A moist seedbed  is required for good germination, and burial of seeds to a depth  of several inches is beneficial, apparently because it provides a  stable moisture supply. Shade also improves germination by  helping to maintain stable moisture. Germination is best beneath  a canopy that represents 60 percent stocking or more, and  germination decreases at lower canopy densities and is poorest in  full sunlight (43,47).

    Under a forest canopy, myriads of cherry seedlings start in the  vicinity of seed trees practically every year. Many of these  survive 3 or 4 years even under the dense shade of an uncut  stand, but few grow to be more than 12 or 15 cm (5 or 6 in) tall  or survive more than 5 years under that low level of light.  Nevertheless, those that die are quickly replaced by newly  germinated seedlings, so a fairly dense understory of small black  cherry seedlings is often present under seed-producing stands of  black cherry. Where canopy density has been reduced by partial  cutting, cherry advance seedlings survive longer and grow taller  in response to the higher level of light (47,49). Overstory  stocking levels of 50 to 70 percent provide optimum conditions  for establishment of black cherry advance reproduction (48). Good  germination and high survival provide for maximum seedling  numbers at this level, and seedling heights of 0.3 to 0.6 in (I  to 2 ft) are achieved in about 5 years. Best height growth of  established seedlings, however, occurs in full sunlight (43,49).

    Black cherry seedlings reach a height of 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in)  within 30 days of germination. Under dense shade they do not grow  much more, averaging less than 3 cm (1 in) of growth per year  until they die because of lack of light. In the open, cherry  stems have the potential to grow faster than most associated  species. Juvenile height growth often averages 46 cm (18 in), and  a few individuals may grow 91 cm (36 in) or more per year. With  fertilization, annual terminal growth of 1.2 to 1.8 m (4 to 6 ft)  is common; growth of up to 2.4 in (8 ft) per year has been  observed on some trees (1).

    Seedlings typically develop a taproot with numerous laterals  during the first few years. Under adequate light, the roots  penetrate 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) the first year in most soils.  Well before black cherry reaches sapling size, a spreading form  of root system develops in which a distinct taproot is no longer  evident (36).

    Black cherry advance seedlings more than 15 cm (6 in) tall and at  least 2 years old survive well and grow rapidly after exposure to  full sunlight. Smaller seedlings survive in somewhat lower  numbers, but they can be important sources of regeneration too.  Smaller seedlings survive better if they grow under a partially  cut canopy before release rather than under an uncut canopy (53).

    A two-cut shelterwood sequence provides the best conditions for  the establishment and subsequent growth of black cherry  regeneration. The seed cut should reduce the overstory to 50 or  60 percent relative density to provide for establishment of a  large number of seedlings of modest size. A removal cut 5 to 10  years later releases the established seedlings for rapid growth  and development (49). In some stands, adequate numbers of advance  seedlings are present naturally, and the overstory removal or  clearcut can be made without an earlier seed cut (25). The  presence of advance seedlings is critical, however, and  clearcutting may not regenerate cherry in stands where advance  seedlings are lacking, especially where deer browsing,  interfering plants, or other factors limit reproduction (55,56).

    Some black cherry seedlings do become established after removal  cutting, and these supplement those that originated as advance  seedlings. But direct exposure to sunlight is not conducive to  best germination. For this reason, small clearcut patches or  strips often provide better regeneration than large block  clearcuts (36), except where advance seedlings are adequate by  themselves.

    In stands where all species start at the same time, cherry quickly  overtops tolerant species (51). Under partial shade, however,  height growth of cherry is often less than that of its tolerant  associates (48), and cherry is far less likely to grow into the  main canopy through small gaps created by removal of a single  tree. As a result, single-tree selection cutting generally  discriminates against black cherry reproduction (46).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seed Production and Dissemination

Limited flowering of  black cherry seedlings in a seed orchard has been observed a few  years after planting (5). Viable seeds have been produced on  open-grown seedlings or sprouts as young as 10 years of age and  on trees as old as 180 years. However, the period of maximum seed  production in natural stands is generally between 30 and 100  years of age (36). Some individual trees never produce  significant quantities of seed even when they reach an age and  crown position where it is expected.

    In most stands of seed-bearing age, some seeds are produced nearly  every year. Good crops occur at intervals of 1 to 5 years across  the geographic range of black cherry; on the Alleghany Plateau of  northwestern Pennsylvania, good crops have occurred about every  other year (7,23). On the Allegheny Plateau, fruit ripening and  seedfall occur between August 15 and mid-September; the time is  earlier in the southern range and later in the northern range. In  the southeastern United States, fruits ripen in late June and  seedfall is complete by early July. There may be as much as 3  weeks difference in fruit maturation dates between trees growing  in the same stand.

    Cleaned black cherry seeds range from 6,800 to 17,900/kg (3,100 to  8,100/lb), averaging 10,600/kg (4,800/lb). Seed weight varies  geographically, with larger seeds in the northwest range and  smaller seeds in the south and east.

    The bulk of the seed crop falls to the ground in the vicinity of  the parent tree. Circles of advance seedlings beneath scattered  cherry trees and an absence of seedlings elsewhere are common  occurrences in closed stands. As a result, the amount of black  cherry advance reproduction is highly dependent on the number and  distribution of seed-producing trees in the overstory (7).  Songbirds distribute modest quantities of seeds in their  droppings or by regurgitation. Omnivorous mammals, such as foxes  and bears, also distribute seeds in their droppings. Bird and  mammal distribution often accounts for a surprising abundance of  advance cherry seedlings in stands lacking cherry seed producers.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Flowering and Fruiting

Unlike domestic cherries, which  flower before the leaves appear, black cherry flowers late in  relation to leaf development. At the latitude of 41° to 42°  N. in Pennsylvania and New York, black cherry flowers usually  appear around May 15 to May 20. At that time, the leaves are  nearly full-grown though still reddish in color (36). Flower  development in other parts of the range varies with climate-from  the end of March in Texas to the first week of June in Quebec,  Canada.

    Black cherry flowers are white, solitary, and borne in umbel-like  racemes. The flowers are perfect and are insect pollinated (22).  Several species of flies, a flower beetle, and several species of  bees, including the honey bee, work the blossoms for pollen and  nectar. Self-pollination has been observed, but none of the  self-pollinated flowers developed into viable seeds (21).

    Late spring frosts may damage the flowers before they open, and  frosts occasionally cause large numbers of newly set fruits to  fall from the pedicels without maturing (36). Premature dropping  of green fruits is also a problem in some years. The fruit is a  one-seeded drupe about 10 min (0.38 in) in diameter with a bony  stone or pit. The fruit is black when ripe.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Growth

Growth and Yield

Black cherry grows very fast in the  seedling, sapling, and pole stages, generally outgrowing and  overtopping common associates such as sugar maple and beech. This  gives rise to evenaged stands that are distinctly stratified into  crown layers and diameters based on species. Black cherry  generally occupies the dominant and codominant crown strata,  while sugar maple and beech occupy an intermediate or suppressed   crown position. Where present, species of intermediate tolerance  such as red maple and white ash tend to be intermediate in crown  position and size between the cherry and the sugar maple and  beech. In stands where tolerant sugar maple and beech are present  in the dominant crown positions alongside black cherry, the  tolerants are often residuals of the previous stand that had a  distinct head start on the cherry (51).

    Black cherry maintains its growth advantage over associated  species for 60 to 80 years, so the proportion of the basal area  or volume in cherry tends to increase over time in mixed stands.  By age 60, codominant red maple diameter growth is often as good  as or better than that of codominant cherry. Beyond age 80 to 100  years, diameter growth slows, mortality of cherry increases  rapidly, and the importance of the species in the stand declines.  However, few stands of such age are available to judge the  rapidity with which cherry disintegrates at advanced ages. Site  index curves for black cherry on the Alleghany Plateau have  recently been developed (2).

    Average annual diameter growth of black cherry dominants and  codominants might be 0.65 cm (0.25 in) between ages 10 and 40  years, 0.5 cm (0.20 in) between ages 40 and 70 years, and 0.4 cm  (0.15 in) between ages 70 and 100 years.

    Growing space requirements for black cherry are considerably lower  than for the associated species (except for hemlock) (71). Thus,  stands containing a high percentage of black cherry carry more  basal area and more volume per acre than stands with a low  percentage of cherry. For example, full stocking for stands with  a quadratic average stand diameter of 25 cm (10 in) is 31.7 m²  of basal area per hectare (138 ft²/acre) if there is 20  percent cherry, and 42.2 m²2 (184 ft² if there is 80  percent cherry. Maximum stocking also varies with stand diameter.  Stocking is 31.7, 37.0, and 40.4 m²/ha (138, 161, and 176 ft²/acre)  at average quadratic stand diameters of 15, 25, and 35 cm (6, 10,  and 14 in), respectively, for stands with 50 percent cherry  (67,72).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Several varieties of black cherry have been recognized in the  southern portion of the range: var. alabamensis, Alabama  black cherry; var. eximia, escarpment cherry; var. rufula,  southwestern black cherry or Gila chokecherry; and var. salicifolia,  the capulin black cherry (36).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Prunus serotina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

The eastern tent caterpillar and the cherry scallop shell moth defoliate black cherry and can cause growth loss and mortality. The fungal disease “black knot” is common on black cherry – it causes elongated, rough, black swellings on the twigs, branches, and trunk.

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: allelopathy, fern

Silviculture: Black cherry regenerates best under even-aged
silvicultural treatments [39,40,41]. Clearcutting is generally used
where advanced regeneration is abundant. Shelterwood cuts are used
where seedlings are scarce and provide good conditions for establishment
from soil-stored seed. Soil scarification following cutting is not
necessary.

Animal damage: Following timber harvest, black cherry seedlings
generally suffer less browsing damage by deer than associated hardwoods
because they are less palatable [54]. However, black cherry stocking
can be reduced or completely eliminated where deer populations are high.
In some instances, successful regeneration can only be assured where
advanced seedlings are so abundant that deer cannot eat them all [39].
Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applications 2 years after harvest
cause black cherry seedlings to quickly outgrow the reach of deer [3].

Competing vegetation: Competing herbaceous vegetation, such as bracken
fern (Pteridium aquilinum), hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia
punctilobula), whorled wood aster (Aster accuminatus), flat-topped aster
(A. umbellatus), goldenrod (Solidigo rugosa), and wild oatgrass
(Danthonia compressa), are often favored by shelterwood cuts. These
species inhibit black cherry seed germination and seedling growth
through allelopathy [16,27]. They are effectively controlled with
herbicides which also kill black cherry seedlings. However, black
cherry seed in the soil is not affected by herbicide treatments, and new
seedlings establish after spraying [37].

Control: Black cherry under 3 feet (0.9 m) tall is susceptible to
2,4,5-T, but slightly more tolerant of 2,4-D. Basal bark treatments
with these herbicides kill trees over 10 feet (3 m) tall [44]. Black
cherry is killed by soil treatments of Bromacil, Fenuron, Karbutilate,
and Picloram [9].

Insects and Diseases: The most serious defoliating insects affecting
black cherry are the eastern tent caterpillar and the cherry scallop
shell moth. Infestations of these insects are sporadically heavy and
cause growth loss and occasional mortality. Numerous borers and beetles
cause gum defects but are seldom fatal. Black knot, a fungal disease
which causes elongated rough black swellings much larger than the stem,
is common in black cherry. In Pennsylvania, Cytospora leucostoma causes
a canker disease resulting in widespread branch mortality. Numerous
root and butt rotting fungi have been reported in black cherry; however,
decay generally spreads more slowly in cherry than associated trees.
See Marquis [39] for a complete discussion of insects and diseases of
black cherry.

Wind damage: Because it is shallow-rooted and has a tendency to overtop
its associates in mixed stands, black cherry is susceptible to windthrow
[39].
  • 3. Auchmoody, L. R. 1982. Response of young black cherry stands to fertilization. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(2): 319-325. [12520]
  • 9. Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p. [8899]
  • 16. Drew, Allan P. 1988. Interference of black cherry by ground flora of the Allegheny uplands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 18: 652-656. [8729]
  • 27. Horsley, Stephen B. 1977. Allelopathic inhibition of black cherry by fern (Pteridium aquilinum), grass, goldenrod (Solidago rugosa) and aster (Aster umbellatus). Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 7: 205-216. [10001]
  • 37. Marquis, David A. 1983. Regeneration of black cherry in the Alleghenies. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Hardwood Symposium - Hardwood Research Council; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 40. Marquis, David A.; Ernst, Richard L.; Stout, Susan L. 1984. Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of the Alleghenies. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-96. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 90 p. [14477]
  • 41. Marquis, David A.; Gearhart, Porter. 1983. Cherry-maple. In: Burns, Russell M., tech. comp. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agric. Handb. No. 445. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 137-140. [12655]
  • 44. Mulligan, Gerald A.; Munro, Derek B. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds, 51. Prunus virginiana L. and P. serotina Ehrh. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 61(4): 977-992. [12540]
  • 54. Tilghman, Nancy G. 1989. Impacts of white-tailed deer on forest regeneration in northwestern Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 524-532. [8914]

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These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

These plant materials are readily available from commercial sources. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Black cherry is sometimes grown in even-aged management –– clearcutting or shelterwood cuts are used, depending on the availability of soil-stored seed. Where deer populations are high, successful regeneration may require that larger seedlings be so abundant that deer cannot eat them all. Because it is shallow-rooted and has a tendency to overtop its associates in mixed stands, black cherry is susceptible to wind throw. Best results in establishing black cherry on reclamation or rehabilitation sites are by planting 1-year or older nursery grown seedlings. Direct seeding has generally been unsuccessful.

The thin bark of black cherry makes it highly susceptible to girdling, and it is usually killed or top-killed by fires of moderate severity. As fire severity increases, the percentage of tree-sized individuals killed also increases. When aboveground portions are killed by fire, black cherry sprouts prolifically from the root crown or stump. This vegetative reproduction, however, depletes carbohydrate reserves and leaves plants in a weakened condition. Quickly repeated fires would probably kill any seedlings and saplings that survived the first fire by resprouting.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

Wild Black Cherry is fast-growing and adaptable. It prefers full sun to light shade, moist to slightly dry conditions, and fertile soil containing loam, clay-loam, or some rocky material. Too much shade from larger canopy trees will stunt the growth of Wild Black Cherry or even kill it.
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Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: reclamation

Black cherry is used for surface mine spoil reclamation in the East.
Best results are obtained by planting 1-year-old or older nursery grown
seedlings. Direct seeding has generally been unsuccessful. In
Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma, 30-year-old plantings at 9 sites
averaged 22 percent survival, 5.2 inches d.b.h. (13 cm), and 36 feet (11
m) in height [60].

Methods for collecting, extracting, cleaning, storing, and sowing black
cherry seed to produce nursery grown seedlings are available [21,59].
  • 59. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 21. Grisez, Ted J. 1974. Prunus L. cherry, peach, and plum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 658-673. [6975]
  • 60. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15575]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: mast

Black cherry leaves, twigs, bark, and seeds are poisonous to livestock.
They contain a cyanogenic glycoside which breaks down during digestion
into hydrocyanic acid [52]. Most livestock poisoning apparently comes
from eating wilted leaves, which contain more of the toxin than fresh
leaves do. One author speculated that more livestock are killed from
eating black cherry than from any other plant [17]. White-tailed deer
eat the leaves and twigs without harm, and browse small to moderate
amounts of seedlings and saplings [39].

Black cherry fruits are important mast for numerous species of birds and
mammals. Numerous songbirds feed on black cherries as they migrate
south in the fall. Passerine birds that make considerable use of black
cherry fruits include the American robin, brown thrasher, mockingbird,
eastern bluebird, European starling, gray catbird, blue jay, willow
flycatcher, northern cardinal, common crow, and waxwings, thrushes,
woodpeckers, grackles, grosbeaks, sparrows, and vireos [42,43]. Black
cherries are also important in the summer and fall diets of the ruffed
grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, wild turkey, northern bobwhite, and greater
and lesser prairie chicken [33,39,58]. The red fox, raccoon, opossum,
and squirrels and rabbits also eat the fruit [58]. Black cherries have
been described as a favorite food of black bears [11].
  • 58. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 42. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 17. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 11. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]
  • 33. Landers, J. Larry. 1981. The role of fire in bobwhite quail management. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 73-80. [14812]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]
  • 43. Morden-Moore, Andrea L.; Willson, Mary F. 1982. On the ecological significance of fruit color in Prunus serotina and Rubus occidentalis: field experiments. Canadian Journal of Botany. 60: 1554-1560. [12608]
  • 52. Stephens, H. A. 1980. Poisonous plants of the central United States. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 165 p. [3803]

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Wood Products Value

More info for the term: tree

Black cherry is an important commercial tree. The rich reddish-brown
wood is strong, hard, and close-grained. It works well and finishes
smoothly, making it one of the most valued cabinet and furniture woods
in North America [59]. Black cherry wood is also used for paneling,
interior trim, veneers, handles, crafts, toys, and scientific
instruments [17,58]. Black cherry's commercial range, where large
numbers of high-quality trees are found, is restricted to the Allegheny
Plateau of Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia [39].
  • 58. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 17. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 59. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]

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Other uses and values

Black cherry bark was used historically in the Appalachians as a cough
remedy, tonic, and sedative. The fruit was also used to flavor rum and
brandy. Pitted fruits are edible, and are eaten raw and used in wine
and jelly [39].
  • 39. Marquis, David A. 1990. Prunus serotina Ehrh. black cherry. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 594-604. [13972]

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Nutritional Value

The twigs of black cherry seedlings and saplings are high in protein.
In Pennsylvania, the protein content of twig sections in mid-April was
about 24 percent for the bud, 15 percent for the terminal 1 inch (2.5
cm) section, and 13 percent the terminal 1 to 2 inch section (2.5-5 cm)
[12].
  • 12. Cowan, R. L.; Jordan, J. S.; Grimes, J. L.; Gill, J. D. 1970. Comparative nutritive values of forage species. In: Range and wildlife habitat evaluation--a research symposium: Proceedings; 1968 May; Flagstaff; Tempe, AZ. Misc. Publ. 1147. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 48-56. [12985]

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Palatability

Black cherry is moderately palatable to white-tailed deer; they prefer
sugar maple, white ash, yellow birch, yellow-poplar, and pin cherry
(Prunus pensylvanica) [37,54].

The fruits are highly palatable to song birds, upland game birds, and
mammals [42,58,59].
  • 58. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 42. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 59. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 37. Marquis, David A. 1983. Regeneration of black cherry in the Alleghenies. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Hardwood Symposium - Hardwood Research Council; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 54. Tilghman, Nancy G. 1989. Impacts of white-tailed deer on forest regeneration in northwestern Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 524-532. [8914]

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Special Uses

Black cherry fruits are an important source of mast for many  nongame birds, squirrel, deer, turkey, mice and moles, and other  wildlife. The leaves, twigs, and bark of black cherry contain  cyanide in bound form as the cyanogenic glycoside, prunasin (33).  During foliage wilting, cyanide is released and domestic  livestock that eat wilted foliage may get sick or die (38). Deer  eat unwilted foliage without harm (36).

    The bark has medicinal properties. In the southern Appalachians,  bark is stripped from young black cherries for use in cough  medicines, tonics, and sedatives (36,39). The fruit is used for  making jelly and wine. Appalachian pioneers sometimes flavored  their rum or brandy with the fruit to make a drink called cherry  bounce. To this, the species owes one of its names-rum cherry  (36).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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David A. Marquis

Source: Silvics of North America

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Uses

Black cherry wood is a rich reddish-brown color and is strong, hard, and close-grained – one of the most valued cabinet and furniture woods in North America. It is also used for paneling, interior trim, veneers, handles, crafts, toys, and scientific instruments. Black cherry is used for reclamation of surface mine spoil.

The leaves, twigs, bark, and seeds produce a cyanogenic glycoside. Most livestock poisoning apparently comes from eating wilted leaves, which contain more of the toxin than fresh leaves, but white-tailed deer browse seedlings and saplings without harm. The inner bark, where the glycoside is concentrated, was used historically in the Appalachians as a cough remedy, tonic, and sedative. The glycoside derivatives act by quelling spasms in the smooth muscles lining bronchioles. Very large amounts of black cherry pose the theoretical risk of causing cyanide poisoning.

The fruit has been used to flavor rum and brandy (“cherry bounce”). Pitted fruits are edible and are eaten raw and used in wine and jelly. Black cherry fruits are important food for numerous species of passerine birds, game birds, and mammals, including the red fox, black bear, raccoon, opossum, squirrels, and rabbits.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Prunus serotina

"Black cherry" redirects here. For other uses, see Black Cherry (disambiguation).

Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild black cherry, rum cherry, or mountain black cherry, is a woody plant species belonging to the genus Prunus. This cherry is native to eastern North America: from eastern Canada through southern Quebec and Ontario; south through the eastern United States to Texas and central Florida; with disjunct populations in Arizona and New Mexico; and in the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala.[2][3]

Immature fruit


Closeup of bark

A mature black cherry can easily be identified in a forest by its very broken, dark grey to black bark, which has the appearance of very thick, burnt cornflakes. However, for about the first decade or so of its life, the bark is thin, smooth, and striped, resembling that of a birch. It can also quickly be identified by its long, shiny leaves resembling those of a sourwood, and by an almond-like odor released when a young twig is scratched and held close to the nose.[4][5]

Subspecies[edit]

The two subspecies of Prunus serotina:[6]

  • P. s. subsp. serotina - Canada, United States
  • P. s. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh — Mexico, Guatemala

The typical subsp. P. s. serotina is sometimes further divided into four varieties, var. serotina in the east of the range, var. eximia in Texas, and vars. rufula and virens in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.[3]

Black cherry is closely related to the chokecherry (Prunus virginiana); chokecherry, however, is classified as a shrub or small tree and has smaller, less glossy leaves

Ecology and cultivation[edit]

P. serotina is a pioneer species. In the Midwest, it is seen growing mostly in old fields with other sunlight-loving species, such as black walnut, black locust, and hackberry. Gleason and Cronquist (1991) describe P. serotina as "[f]ormerly a forest tree, now abundant as a weed-tree of roadsides, waste land, and forest-margins."[7] It is a moderately long-lived tree, with ages of up to 258 years known, though it is prone to storm damage, with branches breaking easily; any decay resulting, however, only progresses slowly. Seed production begins around 10 years of age, but does not become heavy until 30 years and continues up to 100 years. Germination rates are high, and the seeds are widely dispersed by birds who eat the fruit and then excrete them. Some seeds however may remain in the soil bank and not germinate for as long as three years. All Prunus species have hard seeds that benefit from scarification to germinate (which in nature is produced by passing through an animal's digestive tract).[2]

P. serotina is also a host of caterpillars of various Lepidoptera (see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus). The eastern tent caterpillar defoliates entire groves some springs.

Black knot infection

P. serotina was widely introduced into Western and Central Europe as an ornamental tree[8] in the mid 20th century,[9][10] where it has become locally naturalized.[8] It has acted as an invasive species there, negatively affecting forest community biodiversity and regeneration.[11]

P. s. subsp. capuli was cultivated in Central and South America well before European contact.[12]

Biochemistry[edit]

Like apricots, the seeds of black cherries contain compounds that can be converted into cyanide, such as amygdalin.[13][14] These compounds release hydrogen cyanide when the seed is ground or minced, which releases enzymes that break down the compounds. These enzymes include amygdalin beta-glucosidase, prunasin beta-glucosidase and mandelonitrile lyase.[15] In contrast, although the flesh of cherries also contain these compounds, they do not contain the enzymes needed to produce cyanide, so the flesh is safe to eat.[16]

The foliage, particularly when wilted, contains cyanogenic glycosides, which convert to hydrogen cyanide if eaten by animals.[17] Farmers are recommended to remove any trees that fall in a field containing livestock, because the wilted leaves could poison the animals. Removal is not always practical, though, because they often grow in very large numbers on farms, taking advantage of the light brought about by mowing and grazing. Entire fencerows can be lined with this poisonous tree, making it difficult to monitor all the branches falling into the grazing area. Black cherry is a leading cause of livestock illness, and grazing animals' access to it should be limited.

Uses[edit]

The fruit of Prunus serotina is suitable for making jam and cherry pies, and has some use in flavoring liqueurs; they are also a popular flavoring for sodas and ice creams. The black cherry is commonly used instead of sweet cherries (Prunus avium) to achieve a sharper taste. It is also used in cakes which include dark chocolate, such as a Black Forest gateau and as garnishes for cocktails.[citation needed]

The wood of P. serotina is also used for cooking and smoking foods, where it imparts a unique flavor.

P. serotina timber is valuable; perhaps the premier cabinetry timber of the U.S., traded as "cherry". It is known for its strong red color and high price. Its density when dried is around 580 kg/m3 (980 lb/cu yd).[18]

P. serotina trees are sometimes planted ornamentally.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rehder, A. 1940, reprinted 1977. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America exclusive of the subtropical and warmer temperate regions. Macmillan publishing Co., Inc, New York.
  2. ^ a b Marquis, D. A. (undated). U.S. Forest Service Silvics Manual: Prunus serotina Ehrh. - Black Cherry
  3. ^ a b USDA Plants Profile: NCRS: Prunus serotina
  4. ^ This odor is the result of minute amounts of cyanide compounds produced and stored by the plant as a defense mechanism against herbivores. [1][dead link]
  5. ^ "VT Forest Biology and Dendrology". Cnr.vt.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-22. 
  6. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Prunus serotina
  7. ^ Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist. 1991. "Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, Second Edition." The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, New York. 910 pp.
  8. ^ a b Flora of NW Europe: Prunus serotina
  9. ^ Starfinger U. 1997. Introduction and naturalization of Prunus serotina in Central Europe. In: “Plant Invasions: Studies from North America and Europe” (eds by J.H. Brock, M. Wade, P.Pysek, D. Green). Backhuys Publ. Leiden: 161-171.
  10. ^ Kalina M. Nowakowska, Aleksandra Halarewicz (2006). "Coleoptera found on neophyte Prunus serotina (Ehrh.) within forest community and open habitat". Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Biology, Volume 9, Issue 1. 
  11. ^ Stypiński P. 1979. Stanowiska czeremchy amerykańskiej Padus serotina (Ehrh.) Borkh. w lasach państwowych Pojezierza Mazurskiego. Rocznik dendrologiczny. 32: 191-204.
  12. ^ Morton, Julia (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL. pp. 108–109. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Poulton JE (1988). "Localization and catabolism of cyanogenic glycosides". Ciba Foundation symposium 140: 67–91. PMID 3073063. 
  14. ^ Swain E, Poulton JE (October 1994). "Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina". Plant physiology 106 (2): 437–445. doi:10.1104/pp.106.2.437. PMC 159548. PMID 12232341. 
  15. ^ Yemm RS, Poulton JE (June 1986). "Isolation and characterization of multiple forms of mandelonitrile lyase from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds". Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 247 (2): 440–5. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(86)90604-1. PMID 3717954. 
  16. ^ Swain E, Li CP, Poulton JE (April 1992). "Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits". Plant physiology 98 (4): 1423–1428. doi:10.1104/pp.98.4.1423. PMC 1080367. PMID 16668810. 
  17. ^ Missouriplants: Prunus serotina
  18. ^ Niche Timbers Cherry

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

black cherry
wild black cherry
rum cherry
mountain black cherry
wild cherry

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The currently accepted scientific name of black cherry is Prunus
serotina Ehrh. [34]. Recognized varieties found in the United States
and Canada include:

var. serotina - black cherry
var. alabamensis (Mohr) Little - Alabama black cherry
var. exima (Small) Little - escarpment black cherry
var. rufula (Woot. & Standl) McVaugh - southwestern black cherry
  • 34. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]

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