Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This lizard ranges throughout most of west-central and southwestern California (United States) as well as most of Baja California (Mexico) (except the northeastern portion). In California, it ranges north to Shasta County, though a disjunct population occurs farther north at Grasshopper Flat, Siskiyou County, California (Jennings 1988, Grismer 2002, Stebbins 2003). The elevational range extends from near sea level to around 2,438 m (8,000 feet) (Stebbins 2003). Attempted introductions at Yosemite Valley and San Clemente Island (California), and in Hawaii, Colombia, and Guatemala have failed (Jennings 1988).
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Continent: Middle-America North-America
Distribution: USA (California), Mexico (Baja California)  
Type locality: “California”. Restricted to Cape San Lucas, Baja California by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This lizard occurs in a variety of habitats, including scrubland, grassland, coniferous woods, and broadleaf woodlands. Typically it is found in areas with sandy soil, scattered shrubs, and ant colonies, such as along the edges of arroyo bottoms or dirt roads (Grismer 2002, Stebbins 2003). In southern California, P. coronatum was most common in areas with native ants and few or no Argentine ants, in areas with native chaparral vegetation, and in sites with porous soils relatively free of organic debris (Fisher et al. 2002). Individuals bury themselves in loose soil. Eggs are laid in a nest dug in the soil or in a burrow.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Hollingsworth, B. & Hammerson, G.A.

Reviewer/s
Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
This species is known from hundreds of collection sites in California and well over 100 in Baja California (Jennings 1988), but many of these sites no longer support substantial populations. The total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000 and may exceed 100,000. The species is common in parts of Baja California (Grismer 2002). The area of occupancy and population size appear to have declined significantly in California but much less so in Baja California. Its area of occupancy and population size are probably still declining, but the rate of decline is unknown (probably it is substantially less than 30% over the past three generations).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The Coast Horned Lizard is now absent from much of its former southern Californian range due to urbanization, agricultural development, and over-collecting (Jennings 1987, 1988). In some areas, the non-native Argentine ant is displacing native ant species upon which this lizard feeds (Stebbins 2003). In Baja California, the expansion of intensive agriculture is also a threat, in particular in the Vizcaíno Desert, the Magdalena Plain, and the Isthmus of La Paz.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is presumably present in a number of protected areas. It is listed on CITES Appendix II. Further research employing genetic methods is needed to determine the taxonomic status of the named subspecies. Then further consideration should be given to the conservation status of the identified valid taxa. The impact of collecting for the pet trade needs to be assessed.
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Wikipedia

Coast horned lizard

The coast horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum) is a species of phrynosomatid lizard which can be found from Baja California north to California's Sacramento Valley. It is a widely divergent species with over 6 subspecies in their relatively small range. As a defense the lizard can shoot high pressure streams of blood out of its eyes if threatened.[3]

Description[edit]

The coast horned lizard appears rough and spiky but is actually smooth-skinned, although it has sharp spikes along its sides, back and head. It is a large species, and can reach 10 cm (4 inches) excluding the tail. It is less rounded than other horned lizards. It has two large dark blotches behind its head, followed by three broad bands on its body, with several smaller bands along the tail. Its colour can be various shades of brown, with cream 'accents' around the blotches and the outer fringe of its scales.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hollingsworth, B. & Hammerson, G.A. (2007). "Phrynosoma coronatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  2. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. ^ Hylton, Brodie "Ecology and Species Comparisons of the Short-Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi) and the Desert Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos)". Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
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