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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)) The range includes southeastern California, extreme northeastern Baja California (Grismer 2002), northwestern Sonora, and southwestern Arizona (Funk 1981, Stebbins 2003).

In California, the species ranges southward from the Coachella Valley, including both sides of the Salton Sea and Imperial Valley, and westward into the Borrego Valley, Ocotillo Wells area, West Mesa, and Yuha Desert (Yuha Basin), and, on the east side of the Imperial Valley, to the vicinity of the Dos Palmas Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC), but predominantly it occurs in East Mesa and in areas adjoining the Algodones Dunes (i.e., Imperial Sand Dunes, Glamis Sand Dunes) on the east side of the Imperial Valley. In southwestern Arizona, it occurs south of the Gila River and west of the Gila and Tinajas Altas Mountains in Yuma County (Rorabaugh et al. 1987). The range extends into Mexico from the international border in the Yuha Desert in California, south to Laguna Salada in Baja California, and from the international border in the Yuma Desert in Arizona, south and east through the Pinacate Region to the sandy plains around Puerto Penasco and Bahia de San Jorge, Sonora (Johnson and Spicer 1985, Gonzales-Romero and Alvarez-Cardenas 1989; these were cited, without full literature citations, by USFWS 2003).

The distribution of the flat-tailed horned lizard is not contiguous across its range; it is fragmented by large-scale agricultural and urban development, primarily in the Imperial Valley and the Coachella Valley. In addition, the Salton Sea, Colorado River, East Highline Canal, New Coachella Canal, and All American Canal are barriers to movement. Due to this habitat fragmentation and existing geographic barriers, the U.S. distribution appears to be currently divided on a broad scale into at least four geographically discrete populations: three in California and one in Arizona. The three populations in California are located in the Coachella Valley, the west side of the Salton Sea/Imperial Valley, and the east side of the Imperial Valley. [from USFWS 2003]

The flat-tailed horned lizard has been recorded at elevations as high as 520 meters (1,706 feet) above sea level, but is more commonly found below 250 meters (820 feet) in areas with flat-to-modest slopes (Turner et al. 1980).

See Turner and Medica (1982) for the results of surveys done in southeastern California in 1978-1980; the area north of Highway 78 in the vicinity of Ocotillo Wells and Benson Dry Lake (= Ocotillo Dry Lake), eastern San Diego County, was identified as a particularly favorable area; other areas of relatively high abundance were in Imperial County--southern East Mesa, southeastern Yuha Desert, and the Superstition Mountain area. In Arizona, an area southeast of Yuma registered a relatively high abundance index (Rorabaugh et al. 1987).

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Range Description

This species is known only from a limited area in extreme southwestern United States, and extreme northwestern Mexico. The range includes southeastern California, extreme northeastern Baja California (Grismer 2002), northwestern Sonora, and southwestern Arizona (Funk 1981, Stebbins 2003). In California, the species ranges southward from the Coachella Valley, including both sides of the Salton Sea and Imperial Valley, and westward into the Borrego Valley, Ocotillo Wells area, West Mesa, and Yuha Desert (Yuha Basin), and, on the east side of the Imperial Valley, to the vicinity of the Dos Palmas Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC), but predominantly it occurs in East Mesa and in areas adjoining the Algodones Dunes (i.e., Imperial Sand Dunes, Glamis Sand Dunes) on the east side of the Imperial Valley. In southwestern Arizona, it occurs south of the Gila River and west of the Gila and Tinajas Altas Mountains in Yuma County (Rorabaugh et al. 1987). The range extends into Mexico from the international border in the Yuha Desert in California, south to Laguna Salada in Baja California, and from the international border in the Yuma Desert in Arizona, south and east through the Pinacate Region to the sandy plains around Puerto Penasco and Bahia de San Jorge, Sonora (Johnson and Spicer 1985, Gonzales-Romero and Alvarez-Cardenas 1989; these were cited, without full literature citations, by USFWS 2003). The distribution of the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard is not contiguous across its range; it is fragmented by large-scale agricultural and urban development, primarily in the Imperial Valley and the Coachella Valley. In addition, the Salton Sea, Colorado River, East Highline Canal, New Coachella Canal, and All American Canal are barriers to movement. Due to this habitat fragmentation and existing geographic barriers, the United States distribution appears to be currently divided on a broad scale into at least four geographically discrete subpopulations: three in California and one in Arizona. The three subpopulations in California are located in the Coachella Valley, the west side of the Salton Sea/Imperial Valley, and the east side of the Imperial Valley [from USFWS 2003]. The Flat-tailed Horned Lizard has been recorded at elevations as high as 520 m (1,706 feet) above sea level, but is more commonly found below 250 m (820 feet) in areas with flat-to-modest slopes (Turner et al. 1980). See Turner and Medica (1982) for the results of surveys done in southeastern California in 1978-1980; the area north of Highway 78 in the vicinity of Ocotillo Wells and Benson Dry Lake (= Ocotillo Dry Lake), eastern San Diego County, was identified as a particularly favorable area; other areas of relatively high abundance were in Imperial County--southern East Mesa, southeastern Yuha Desert, and the Superstition Mountain area. In Arizona, an area southeast of Yuma registered a relatively high abundance index (Rorabaugh et al. 1987). Its area of occupancy is very small within the extent of occurrence because of its dependence on wind-blown sand.
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Continent: Middle-America North-America
Distribution: USA (SE California, SW Arizona),  Mexico (NE Baja California Norte, NW Sonora)  
Type locality: Great Desert of the Colorado, between Vallecita and Camp Yuma, about 200 miles east of San Diego.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 12 cm

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Diagnostic Description

No other horned lizard has a dark middorsal stripe. Apparent hybrids between P. mcallii and P. platyrhinos, exhibiting a mix of morphological characteristics, have been observed in the vicinity of Ocotillo, California (Stebbins 1985), and southeast of Yuma, Arizona (K. Young, Utah State University, pers. comm., 2002, cited by USFWS 2002).

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Ecology

Habitat

Sonoran Desert Habitat

This taxon is found in the Sonoran Desert, which comprises much of the state of Sonora, Mexico, most of the southern half of the USA states of Arizona, southeastern California, most of the Baja California peninsula, and the numerous islands of the Gulf of California. Its southern third straddles 30° north latitude and is a horse latitude desert; the rest is rainshadow desert. It is lush in comparison to most other deserts. There is a moderate diversity of faunal organisms present, with 550 distinct vertebrate species having been recorded here.

The visually dominant elements of the landscape are two lifeforms that distinguish the Sonoran Desert from the other North American deserts: legume trees and large columnar cacti. This desert also supports many other organisms, encompassing a rich spectrum of some 2000 species of plants, 550 species of vertebrates, and untolled thousands of invertebrate species.

The Sonoran Desert prominently differs from the other three deserts of North America in having mild winters. Most of the area rarely experiences frost, and the biota are partly tropical in origin. Many of the perennial plants and animals are derived from ancestors in the tropical thorn-scrub to the south, their life cycles attuned to the brief summer rainy season. The winter rains, when ample, support great populations of annuals (which make up nearly half of the plant species). Some of the plants and animals are opportunistic, growing or reproducing after significant rainfall in any season.

Creosote Bush (Larrea divaricata) and White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) vegetation characterize the lower Colorado River Valley section of the Sonoran. The Arizona upland section to the north and east is more mesic, resulting in greater species diversity and richness. Lower elevation areas are dominated by dense communities of Creosote Bush and White Bursage, but on slopes and higher portions of bajadas, subtrees such as palo verde (Cercidium floridum, C. microphyllum) and Ironwood (Olneya tesota), saguaros (Carnegiea gigantia), and other tall cacti are abundant. Cresosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) and White Bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) form the scrub that dominates the northwest part of the Sonoran Desert. This association thrives on deep, sandy soils in the flatlands. Where the dunes allow for slight inclination of the slope, species of Mesquite (Prosopis), Cercidium, Ironwood (Olneya tesota), Candalia, Lycium, Prickly-pear (Opuntia), Fouquieria, Burrobush (Hymenoclea) and Acacia are favored. The coastal plains of Sonora are composed of an almost pure Larrea scrub. Away from the Gulf influence in the area surrounding the Pinacate, Encelia farinosa, Larrea tridentataOlneya, Cercidium, Prosopis, Fouquieria and various cacti species dominate the desert.

Many wildlife species, such as Sonoran Pronghorn Antelope (Antilocapra sonoriensis EN), Desert Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and the endemic Bailey's Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus baileyi) use ironwood, cacti species and other vegetation as both shelter from the harsh climate as well as a water supply. Other mammals include predators such as Puma (Felis concolor), Coyote (Canis latrans) and prey such as Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), and the Round-tailed Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus tereticaudus). Other mammals able to withstand the extreme desert climate of this ecoregion include California Leaf-nosed Bat (Macrotus californicus) and Ring-tailed Cat (Bassariscus astutus).

Three endemic lizards to the Sonoran Desert are: the Coachella Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma inornata EN); the Flat-tail Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii NT); and the Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma notata NT); an endemic whiptail is the San Esteban Island Whiptail (Cnemidophorus estebanensis). Non-endemic special status reptiles in the ecoregion include the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii VU) and the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum NT).

There are twenty-four  anuran species occurring in the Sonoran Desert, one of which is endemic, the Sonoran Green Toad (Anaxyrus retiformis). Other anurans in the ecoregion are: California Treefrog (Pseudacris cadaverina); Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor); Lowland Burrowing Frog (Smilisca fodiens); Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii); Madrean Treefrog (Hyla eximia); Sabinal Frog (Leptodactylus melanonotus); Northwest Mexico Leopard Frog (Lithobates magnaocularis); Brown's Leopard Frog (Lithobates brownorum); Yavapai Leopard Frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); Mexican Cascade Frog (Lithobates pustulosus); Mexican Leaf Frog (Pachymedusa dacnicolor); Red Spotted Toad (Anaxyrus punctatus); Sinaloa Toad (Incilius mazatlanensis); Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius); Eastern Green Toad  (Anaxyrus debilis); New Mexico Spadefoot (Spea multiplicata); Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus); Couch's Spadefoot Toad (Scaphiopus couchii); Cane Toad (Rhinella marina); Elegant Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne elegans);  Little Mexican Toad (Anaxyrus kelloggi); Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea); and Woodhouse's Toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii).

The Sonoran Desert is recognized as an exceptional birding area. Forty-one percent (261 of 622) of all terrestrial bird species found in the USA can be seen here during some season of the year. The Sonoran Desert, together with its eastern neighbor the Chihuahuan Desert, is the richest area in in the USA for birds, particularly hummingbirds. Among the bird species found in the Sonoran Desert are the saguaro-inhabiting Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae), Black-tailed Gnatcatcher (Polioptila melanura), Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) and Gila Woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygualis). Perhaps the most well-known Sonoran bird is the Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), distinguished by its preference for running rather than flying, as it hunts scorpions, tarantulas, rattlesnakes, lizards, and other prey. The Sonoran Desert exhibits two endemic bird species, the highest level of bird endemism in the USA. The Rufous-winged Sparrow (Aimophila carpalis) is rather common in most parts of the Sonoran, but only along the central portion of the Arizona-Mexico border, seen in desert grasses admixed with brush. Rare in extreme southern Arizona along the Mexican border, the endemic Five-striped Sparrow (Aimophila quinquestriata) is predominantly found in canyons on hillsides and slopes among tall, dense scrub.

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Habitat Type: Terrestrial

Comments: Typical habitat consists of sandy desert flatlands with sparse vegetation and low plant species diversity; occasionally the species occurs on low hills, mud hills, alkali flats, or areas covered with small pebbles or desert pavement; it is most abundant where surface soils contain some loose or windblown sand but rarely occurs on dunes (see USFWS 1993, Beauchamp et al. 1998). Vegetation in favorable habitat may include creosotebush, bur-sage, indigo bush, saltbush, and ocotillo (Turner and Medica 1982); also salt-cedar (Grismer 2002). In Arizona, it is most abundant in areas with galleta grass, sandy soil, and many active black harvester ant nests (Rorabaugh et al. 1987). In southeastern California, abundance is positively correlated with density of perennial plants, and there is a strong positive association between lizard and ant densities (Turner and Medica 1982). This is a cryptic lizard that generally occurs on the ground; often it is immobile and difficult ot detect until it moves. Sometimes it perches on rocks or wood (Grismer 2002). Periods of inactivity may be spent burrowed in loose sand. When approached, it may attempt escape into a burrow or under a shrub (Wone and Beauchamp 1995). Hibernation burrows appear to be self-constructed (constructed by the lizards themselves versus using burrows constructed by other animals) and are within 10 cm of the surface (Muth and Fisher 1992). Mayhew (1965) found that the majority of lizards hibernated within 5 cm of the surface. The greatest depth recorded was 20 cm below the surface.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Typical habitat consists of sandy desert flatlands with sparse vegetation and low plant species diversity; occasionally the species occurs on low hills, mud hills, alkali flats, or areas covered with small pebbles or desert pavement; it is most abundant where surface soils contain some loose or windblown sand but rarely occurs on dunes (see USFWS 1993, Beauchamp et al. 1998). Vegetation in favourable habitat may include creosote bush, bur-sage, indigo bush, saltbush, and ocotillo (Turner and Medica 1982); also salt-cedar (Grismer 2002). In Arizona, it is most abundant in areas with galleta grass, sandy soil, and many active black harvester ant nests (Rorabaugh et al. 1987). In southeastern California, abundance is positively correlated with density of perennial plants, and there is a strong positive association between lizard and ant densities (Turner and Medica 1982). This is a cryptic lizard that generally occurs on the ground; often it is immobile and difficult to detect until it moves. Sometimes it perches on rocks or wood (Grismer 2002). Periods of inactivity may be spent burrowed in loose sand. When approached, it may attempt escape into a burrow or under a shrub (Wone and Beauchamp 1995, Herpetological Review 26: 132). Hibernation burrows appear to be self-constructed (constructed by the lizards themselves versus using burrows constructed by other animals) and are within 10 cm of the surface (Muth and Fisher 1992). Mayhew (1965) found that the majority of lizards hibernated within five cm of the surface. The greatest depth recorded was 20 cm below the surface.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Flat-tailed horned lizards can have relatively large home ranges (Foreman 1997). Muth and Fisher (1992) found the mean home range for lizards (N = 22) was 2.7 ha from a minimum of 19 locations in West Mesa. In the Yuma Desert of Arizona, Young and Young (2000) found mean home ranges for males differed between drought and wet years, while those of females did not. The mean home range for males was 2.5 ha during a dry year versus 10.3 ha during a wet year. Female mean home ranges were smaller at 1.3 ha and 1.9 ha in dry and wet years, respectively (Young and Young 2000). Young and Young (2000) noted a wide variation in movement patterns, with a few home ranges estimated at greater than 34.4 ha. [from USFWS 2003]

At Ocotillo Wells State Vehicular Recreation Area in California, Wone and Beauchamp (2003) found that the total area used ranged from 0.15 to 59.2 ha for males (mean 17.8 ha) and 0.06 to 36.0 ha for females (mean 9.0 ha).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds almost exclusively on ants, especially harvester ants; sometimes also eats other insects (Turner and Medica 1982).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been established using consistent criteria; probably there are more than 20 and perhaps fewer than 80 (e.g., see Funk 1981). Jennings and Hayes (1994) mapped a few dozen extant populations in southern California, plus about 20 extirpated ones.

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Global Abundance

100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Comments: The BLM recently estimated the population size on the Yuha Basin Management Area (MA) (one of five management areas identified in a management strategy for the species) by using capture-mark-recapture (CMR) techniques incorporating detection probabilities (see Thompson et al. 1998, Williams et al. 2002). In the summer (June to August) of 2002, the population of flat-tailed horned lizards for the Yuha Basin MA (24,122 ha) was estimated at 18,494 adults (95 percent CI = 14,596 to 22,391) (Grant and Wright 2002) and 8,685 juveniles (95 percent CI = 6,860 to 10,510) (derived from Grant and Wright 2002). ''Adults'' included all lizards greater than 60 mm (Young and Young 2000), while ''juveniles'' included all lizards 60 mm or less in snout-to-vent length. Population estimates for the other four MAs using a CMR methodology will be conducted soon, for the first time (Gavin Wright, BLM biologist, pers. comm., 2002). [from USFWS 2003]. Based on this information, it seems likely that the total adult population size exceeds 100,000.

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General Ecology

Relatively difficult to find due at least in part to low density; surveys in several areas of southeastern California yielded a maximum of only 0.4 lizards/hour (Turner and Medica 1982). Density typically is 0.3-3.8 per hectare (see USFWS, Federal Register, 15 July 1997). Beauchamp et al. (1998) recorded a density of up to 0.23 per ha at Ocotillo Wells State Vehicle Recreation Area, California.

Often occurs in association with the lizards CALLISAURUS DRACONOIDES and DIPSOSAURUS DORSALIS.

Predators include American kestrel, common raven, burrowing owl, loggerhead shrike, sidewinder, and kit fox (Duncan et al., 1994, Herpetol. Rev. 25:68); perhaps ravens obtain the lizards more often as carrion than as live prey.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Inactive in cold temperatures or extreme heat. Burrows into sand to seek shelter from heat of day or cool of night. During the summer may be most active in the early morning and evening.

Adult flat-tailed horned lizards are reported to be obligatory hibernators (Mayhew 1965), although individuals have been noted on the surface during January and February (Eric Hollenbeck, Ocotillo Wells SVRA biologist, pers. comm., 2002). Hibernation may begin as early as October and end as late as March (Muth and Fisher 1992). While most adults apparently hibernate during winter months, some juveniles may remain active (Muth and Fisher 1992). In southern California, duration of winter dormancy for 8 telemetered lizards was 85 days (Wone and Beauchamp 2003).

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Reproduction

Flat-tailed horned lizards are oviparous (egg-laying), early maturing, and may produce multiple clutches within a breeding season (Howard 1974). Flat-tailed horned lizards produce relatively small egg clutches (N = 31; mean clutch size = 4.7; range = 3 to 7; Howard 1974), compared to most other horned lizards (Pianka and Parker 1975). The first cohort hatches in July to August (Muth and Fisher 1992; Young and Young 2000), and in some years a second cohort may be produced (Howard 1974, Young and Young 2000). Hatchlings from the first cohort may reach sexual maturity after their first winter season, whereas hatchlings born later may require an additional growing season to mature (Howard 1974, Young and Young 2000). Flat-tailed horned lizards can live up to at least 6 years in the wild (FTHL-ICC 2002), and up to 9 years in captivity (Baur 1986). [from USFWS 2003]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phrynosoma mcallii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Diminished, fragmented range in southeastern California, southwestern Arizona, and adjacent northwestern Mexico; threatened primarily by habitat loss/degradation resulting from land development and other human activities; conservation agreements have reduced threats on public lands.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Hammerson, G.A., Frost, D.R. & Gadsden, H.

Reviewer/s
Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Near Threatened since the species depends on areas of wind-blown sand, and so its area of occupancy is probably not much greater than 2,000 km², and the extent and quality of its habitat is declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion B1ab(iii).
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Overall, extent of occurrence and area of occupancy have been relatively stable to slightly declining in recent years.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Comments: Hodges (1997) estimated that the flat-tailed horned lizard historically (prior to agricultural or urban development of either the Coachella or Imperial Valleys) occupied up to 979,037 ha in Arizona and California. Approximately 51 percent (503,173 ha) of this historical habitat remains in the United States, with about 56,770 ha in Arizona and 446,390 ha in California (Hodges 1997). The Salton Sea area could arguably be considered ephemeral historical habitat, present at some points and absent at others, as the area changed through time. Hodges (1977) included the Salton Sea as historical habitat. If the area the Salton Sea currently occupies is not considered historical habitat, then approximately 57 percent (557,072 ha) of historical habitat remains in the United States. [from USFWS 2003].

Johnson and Spicer (1985) estimated that in 1981 approximately 59 percent of the species range occurred in Mexico, with the majority of the range in Mexico occurring in the state of Sonora. However, the distribution of the species in Mexico is poorly understood because few surveys have been conducted to determine where the species occurs in Mexico (CEDO 2001). In 1981 in Sonora, about 14 percent of the habitat was estimated to be threatened by urban, agricultural or recreational use, and habitat degradation (Johnson and Spicer 1985). In Baja California, considerable habitat loss has occurred in the Mexicali Valley, where urban and agricultural development extends from Mexicali to the Colorado River (Johnson and Spicer 1985, Foreman 1997). [from USFWS 2003]

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Population

Population
The number of distinct occurrences has not been established using consistent criteria; probably there are more than 20 and perhaps fewer than 80 (e.g., see Funk 1981). Jennings and Hayes (1994) mapped a few dozen extant populations in southern California, plus about 20 extirpated ones. The number of occurrences with good viability is unknown but probably does not exceed a few dozen. The BLM recently estimated the population size on the Yuha Basin Management Area (MA) (one of five management areas identified in a management strategy for the species) by using capture-mark-recapture (CMR) techniques incorporating detection probabilities (see Thompson et al. 1998, Williams et al. 2002). In the summer (June to August) of 2002, the population of Flat-tailed Horned Lizards for the Yuha Basin MA (24,122 ha) was estimated at 18,494 adults (95% confidence interval = 14,596 to 22,391) and 8,685 juveniles (95% confidence interval = 6,860 to 10,510). ''Adults'' included all lizards greater than 60 mm (Young and Young 2000), while ''juveniles'' included all lizards 60 mm or less in snout-to-vent length. Population estimates for the other four MAs using a CMR methodology will be conducted soon, for the first time (G. Wright, BLM biologist, pers. comm. 2002). [from USFWS 2003]. Based on this information, it seems likely that the total adult population size exceeds 100,000. Hodges (1997) estimated that the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard historically (prior to agricultural or urban development of either the Coachella or Imperial Valleys) occupied up to 979,037 ha in Arizona and California. Approximately 51% (503,173 ha) of this historical habitat remains in the United States, with about 56,770 ha in Arizona and 446,390 ha in California (Hodges 1997). The Salton Sea area could arguably be considered ephemeral historical habitat, present at some points and absent at others, as the area changed through time. Hodges (1977) included the Salton Sea as historical habitat. If the area the Salton Sea currently occupies is not considered historical habitat, then approximately 57% (557,072 ha) of historical habitat remains in the United States. [from USFWS 2003]. Johnson and Spicer (1985) estimated that in 1981 approximately 59% of the species range occurred in Mexico, with the majority of the range in Mexico occurring in the state of Sonora. However, the distribution of the species in Mexico is poorly understood because few surveys have been conducted to determine where the species occurs in Mexico. In 1981 in Sonora, about 14% of the habitat was estimated to be threatened by urban, agricultural or recreational use, and habitat degradation (Johnson and Spicer 1985). In Baja California, considerable habitat loss has occurred in the Mexicali Valley, where urban and agricultural development extends from Mexicali to the Colorado River (Johnson and Spicer 1985, Foreman 1997) [from USFWS 2003]. Overall, extent of occurrence and area of occupancy have been relatively stable to slightly declining in recent years.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: Based on information obtained since the withdrawal of the proposed listing rule in 1997 and information documented in the proposed rule, USFWS (2003) identified potential threats to the flat-tailed horned lizard, including the following: urban development, agricultural development, OHV activity, energy development, military activities, introduction of non-native plants, pesticide use, and habitat degradation due to Border Patrol and illegal drive-through traffic along the United States-Mexico border. These threats and their effects on flat-tailed horned lizards and their habitat are discussed in further detail in USFWS (2003).

After considering all the current available information, USFWS (2003) determined that the threats identified under Factor A (habitat loss/change) are not significant enough to conclude that the flat-tailed horned lizard is likely to become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range in the foreseeable future. However, the Coachella Valley has experienced a significant amount of habitat curtailment and there is the potential for significant habitat destruction in the immediate future, because of the predominant private ownership of habitat and the rate of development in the Coachella Valley.

Currently available information does not suggest that development of private lands on the west side of Salton Sea/Imperial Valley poses a threat in the foreseeable future. The only towns in this geographic area are Borrego Springs, Ocotillo, Ocotillo Wells, and Salton City. The largest of these towns is Borrego Springs with a population of approximately 3,000 people. It is likely that the size of these towns will not change significantly in the foreseeable future (USFWS 2003). Therefore, USFWS (2003) concluded that the threat of development of private lands in areas other than the Coachella Valley is not significant enough to endanger the species within the foreseeable future throughout a significant portion of its range. The available data do not suggest that habitat modification by OHV use threatens the flat-tailed horned lizard on the west side of the Salton Sea/Imperial Valley and east side of the Imperial Valley (USFWS 2003).

USFWS (2003) also concluded that the Arizona population is not likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. The the low percentage of lands in private ownership makes for a low degree of threat from development. Further, OHV use has not been shown to be a threat to populations there, and this geographic area experiences a relatively low level of OHV activity.

Collection, predation, and disease are not believed to be significant threats (USFWS 2003).

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Major Threats
Based on information obtained since the withdrawal of the proposed listing rule in 1997 and information documented in the proposed rule, USFWS (2003) identified potential threats to the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard, including the following: urban development, agricultural development, OHV activity, energy development, military activities, introduction of non-native plants, pesticide use, and habitat degradation due to Border Patrol and illegal drive-through traffic along the United States-Mexico border. These threats and their effects on flat-tailed horned lizards and their habitat are discussed in further detail in USFWS (2003). After considering all the current available information, USFWS (2003) determined that the threats identified under Factor A (habitat loss/change) were not significant enough to conclude that the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard is likely to become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range in the foreseeable future. However, the Coachella Valley has experienced a significant amount of habitat curtailment and there is the potential for significant habitat destruction in the immediate future, because of the predominant private ownership of habitat and the rate of development in the Coachella Valley. Currently available information does not suggest that development of private lands on the west side of Salton Sea/Imperial Valley poses a threat in the foreseeable future. The only towns in this geographic area are Borrego Springs, Ocotillo, Ocotillo Wells, and Salton City. The largest of these towns is Borrego Springs with a population of approximately 3,000 people. It is likely that the size of these towns will not change significantly in the foreseeable future (USFWS 2003). Therefore, USFWS (2003) concluded that the threat of development of private lands in areas other than the Coachella Valley is not significant enough to endanger the species within the foreseeable future throughout a significant portion of its range. The available data do not suggest that habitat modification by OHV use threatens the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard on the west side of the Salton Sea/Imperial Valley and east side of the Imperial Valley (USFWS 2003). USFWS (2003) also concluded that the Arizona population is not likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. The low percentage of lands in private ownership makes for a low degree of threat from development. Further, OHV use has not been shown to be a threat to populations there, and this geographic area experiences a relatively low level of OHV activity. Collection, predation, and disease are not believed to be significant threats (USFWS 2003). In Mexico, off-road driving by tourists over dunes is a major threat to its habitat. The species is also persecuted, and is harvested for the pet trade in Mexico.
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Management

Management Requirements: A flat-tailed horned lizard Population Viability Analysis (PVA) was conducted by a conservation team convened both to share research results involving this species and to evaluate the Management Strategy. The preliminary PVA provided no estimate of the minimum viable population size and did not determine whether populations contained within the MAs were viable, due to a lack of population demographic and stochastic (i.e., random events relevant to a population) information. However, the analysis illustrated the sensitivity of flat-tailed horned lizard population viability to certain factors, particularly changes in mortality and fecundity. Recommendations in the PVA report included controlling activities that result in mortality of flat-tailed horned lizards and degradation of their habitat. Large management areas were found to be desirable as a conservative approach to ensuring the long-term population persistence.

See Gardner et al. (2004, Herpetol. Rev.. 35:250-251) for a discussion of the use of barrier fences to prevent road mortality.

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Global Protection: Several to many (4-40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: In June of 1997, seven Federal and State agencies signed a Conservation Agreement (CA) to implement a Flat-tailed Horned Lizard Rangewide Management Strategy (Management Strategy). The purpose of the Management Strategy is to provide a framework for conserving sufficient habitat to maintain several viable populations of the species throughout the range in the United States. As part of the CA, agencies delineated specific areas under their jurisdiction as Management Areas (MAs). Approximately 181,100 ha of the remaining flat-tailed horned lizard habitat managed by signatories of the CA exists within five MAs, which occur in the Borrego Badlands, West Mesa, Yuha Desert, East Mesa, and the Yuma Desert. These managed areas are believed to represent approximately 35 percent of flat-tailed horned lizard habitat remaining in the United States.

The five MAs were designed to identify large areas of public land where flat-tailed horned lizards have been found, as well as to include most flat-tailed horned lizard habitat identified as key areas in previous studies (Turner et al. 1980, Turner and Medica 1982, Rorabaugh et al. 1987, Foreman 1997). The MAs were delineated to include areas as large as possible, while avoiding extensive, existing and predicted management conflicts (e.g., OHV open areas). The MAs are meant to be the core areas for maintaining self-sustaining populations of flat-tailed horned lizards in the U.S. (FTHL-ICC 2002).

This lizard commonly occurs in additional areas outside of the MAs. These areas include the Ocotillo Wells State Vehicle Recreation Area (Ocotillo Wells SVRA), Coachella Valley, the areas adjoining the Algodones Dunes, and east of the Algodones Dunes between Ogilby and the Mexican border (Norris 1949, Turner et al. 1980, Turner and Medica 1982). The Ocotillo Wells SVRA is currently a Research Area under the Management Strategy, and studies on the flat-tailed horned lizard have been encouraged and funded by the California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR) Division of Off-Highway Motor Vehicle Recreation
(Foreman 1997). The majority of the potential habitat is within and adjacent to the Algodones Dunes is within the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area. Over 47,754 ha of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area is used as an OHV open area. The majority of the Algodones Dunes north of Highway 78 is a designated wilderness area. [from USFWS 2003]

Of the remaining habitat in the Coachella Valley, only about 2,150 ha of suitable flat-tailed horned lizard habitat is estimated to be protected as part of the Coachella Valley Fringe-Toed Lizard Preserve System (Coachella Valley Mountains Conservancy 2001). Approximately 75 percent of the horned lizard habitat in the Coachella Valley is either private or Tribal land and subject to development in the near future. [from USFWS 2003]

The majority (about 60 percent) of the range in Mexico lies within two federally protected areas: (1) The Upper Gulf of California and Colorado Delta Biosphere Reserve, and (2) the Pinacate and Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve (CEDO 2001). The National Park of Pinacate is an area administered by the Mexican government with use restrictions similar to those in a national park in the United States. The Upper Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve includes flat-tailed horned lizard habitat in the vicinity of the Colorado River Delta in Sonora, Mexico. [from USFWS 2003]

Grismer (2002) stated that "it is conceivable that the remote, undeveloped areas of northeastern Baja California and northwestern Sonora may become strongholds for this species."

Needs: See draft "Flat-tailed Horned Lizard Rangewide Management Strategy," available in October 1996.

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In June of 1997, seven Federal and State agencies signed a Conservation Agreement (CA) to implement a Flat-tailed Horned Lizard Rangewide Management Strategy (Management Strategy). The purpose of the Management Strategy is to provide a framework for conserving sufficient habitat to maintain several viable populations of the species throughout the range in the United States. As part of the CA, agencies delineated specific areas under their jurisdiction as Management Areas (MAs). Approximately 181,100 ha of the remaining Flat-tailed Horned Lizard habitat managed by signatories of the CA exists within five MAs, which occur in the Borrego Badlands, West Mesa, Yuha Desert, East Mesa, and the Yuma Desert. These managed areas are believed to represent approximately 35% of Flat-tailed Horned Lizard habitat remaining in the United States. The five MAs were designed to identify large areas of public land where Flat-tailed Horned Lizards have been found, as well as to include most Flat-tailed Horned Lizard habitat identified as key areas in previous studies (Turner et al. 1980, Turner and Medica 1982, Rorabaugh et al. 1987, Foreman 1997). The MAs were delineated to include areas as large as possible, while avoiding extensive, existing and predicted management conflicts (e.g., OHV open areas). The MAs are meant to be the core areas for maintaining self-sustaining populations of Flat-tailed Horned Lizards in the US (FTHL-ICC 2002). This lizard commonly occurs in additional areas outside of the MAs. These areas include the Ocotillo Wells State Vehicle Recreation Area (Ocotillo Wells SVRA), Coachella Valley, the areas adjoining the Algodones Dunes, and east of the Algodones Dunes between Ogilby and the Mexican border (Norris 1949, Turner et al. 1980, Turner and Medica 1982). The Ocotillo Wells SVRA is currently a Research Area under the Management Strategy, and studies on the flat-tailed horned lizard have been encouraged and funded by the California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR) Division of Off-Highway Motor Vehicle Recreation (Foreman 1997). The majority of the potential habitat is within and adjacent to the Algodones Dunes is within the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area. Over 47,754 ha of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area is used as an OHV open area. The majority of the Algodones Dunes north of Highway 78 is a designated wilderness area [from USFWS 2003]. Of the remaining habitat in the Coachella Valley, only about 2,150 ha of suitable Flat-tailed Horned Lizard habitat is estimated to be protected as part of the Coachella Valley Fringe-Toed Lizard Preserve System (Coachella Valley Mountains Conservancy 2001). Approximately 75% of the horned lizard habitat in the Coachella Valley is either private or Tribal land and subject to development in the near future [from USFWS 2003]. The majority (about 60 percent) of the range in Mexico lies within two federally protected areas: (1) The Upper Gulf of California and Colorado Delta Biosphere Reserve, and (2) the Pinacate and Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve (CEDO 2001). The National Park of Pinacate is an area administered by the Mexican government with use restrictions similar to those in a national park in the United States. The Upper Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve includes Flat-tailed Horned Lizard habitat in the vicinity of the Colorado River Delta in Sonora, Mexico [from USFWS 2003]. Grismer (2002) stated that "it is conceivable that the remote, undeveloped areas of northeastern Baja California and northwestern Sonora may become strongholds for this species".
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Wikipedia

Flat-tail horned lizard

The flat-tail horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) is a reptile of the Sonoran desert of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.[1] Its multiple adaptations for camouflage help to minimise its shadow.[2] The species is threatened, with a restricted range under pressure from human activities such as agriculture and development, and is specially protected in the United States.

Description and range[edit]

The flat-tail horned lizard is named for Colonel George A. M'Call, who collected the first specimen in California in the 19th century. The species occupies a small range in the Sonoran Desert of southeastern California, southwestern Arizona, and extreme northern Mexico in the Baja California and Sonora states.[1] Over time, horned lizard populations have adapted to climate, food, and predators, causing them to in some ways be distinct from one another.[2]

"A medium-sized flat-bodied lizard with a wide oval-shaped body and scattered enlarged pointed scales on the upper body and tail. The back skin is smooth with small spines. 8 horns extend from the back of the head. The two central horns are long, slender and sharp. Long and narrow spines on the lower jaw and two rows of fringe scales on the sides of the body, the bottom row scales smaller than the upper."[3]

Camouflage techniques[edit]

Further information: camouflage
The flat-tail horned lizard has flanges with fringed edges to conceal its shadow in the open desert. Diagram illustrates the camouflage principles involved.

The flat-tail horned lizard has evolved elaborate camouflage measures to eliminate shadow. Their bodies are flattened, with the sides thinning to an edge; the animals habitually press their bodies to the ground; and their sides are fringed with white scales which effectively hide and disrupt any remaining areas of shadow there may be under the edge of the body.[4]

Different populations of the species match their local backgrounds using a combination of colour-creating cells in their back scales. These cells include black melanophores and red chromatophores in an upper layer, scattered over a layer of white reflective iridophores, enabling the flat-tail horned lizard to match the local soil or rock. So for example the Algondones Dunes population of San Luis, Sonora is generally redder than the population on the whiter Thousand Palms dunes of California.[4] In addition, the dark midline helps to disrupt the outline of the lizard, resembling the thin shadows of plant stems in its windswept sand habitat.[4]

A threatened species[edit]

This lizard is threatened by development, agriculture, and other man-made intrusions into their small range. The majority of their remaining habitat in the US is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The species (Phrynosoma mcallii) frequently coexists with sources of natural gas, oil, geothermal energy, and minerals which can found in its habitat.[5] In 1982, the US Fish and Wildlife Service declared P. mcallii as a Candidate 2 Category for the list of threatened and endangered species due to concerns over potential threats to their habitat which could further diminish the population. P. mcallii has also been given special status in both California and Arizona, which prevents their collection.[1]

Experiments have been conducted to investigate the "fluctuations in populations of flat-tailed horned lizards, Phrynosoma mcallii, in the Coachella Valley, California. This species has the smallest range of any horned lizard in the United States. In parts of its range, there are potentially conflicting activities, such as suburban development, agriculture, off-road recreation, and activities along the international border."[6]

"Between 1978 and 1980 the Bureau of Land Management supported investigations of the status of P. mcallii in California. The purpose of this work was to determine the local distribution and relative abundance of P. mcallii, to correlate these parameters with various habitat attributes, and to gather information on the structure of the populations and mobility and food habits of individual lizards."[5]

The study also looked at the flat-tailed horned lizard's distribution and abundance throughout Arizona. The species was found to be restricted to an area of desert, 650–700 km2 in size, in the southwestern corner of the state. The species was most abundant in places with the Western whiptail (Cnemidophorus tigris), nests of the black harvester ant (Messor pergandei), galleta grass (Hilaria rigida) and sandy soils.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Rorabaugh, 1987.
  2. ^ a b Sherbrooke, 2003.
  3. ^ "Phrynosoma mcallii - Flat-tail Horned Lizard". Californiaherps.com. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Sherbrooke, 2003. pp.117–121
  5. ^ a b Turner, Frederick B.; Medica, Philip A. (Dec 21, 1982). "The Distribution and Abundance of the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii)". Copeia 4: 815–823. JSTOR 1444091. 
  6. ^ Barrows, Cameron W.; Allen, Michael F. (2009). "Conserving Species In Fragmented Habitats: Population Dynamics Of The Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma Mcallii". Southwestern Naturalist date=SEPTEMBER 2009 54: 307–316. doi:10.1894/wl-22.1. 

Sources[edit]

  • Rorabaugh, James C.; James C. Rorabaugh, Carolyn L. Palermo and Steven C. Dunn (March 1987). Distribution and Relative Abundance of the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) in Arizona. Southwestern Association of Naturalists. p. 103. JSTOR 3672014. 
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. (2003). Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. London: University of California press. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Reeder and Montanucci (2001) examined phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma) based on mtDNA and morphology.

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