Overview

Distribution

Global Range: Native to Europe. Introduced from northern Italy to Cincinnati, Ohio, in September 1951 or 1952 (Deichsel and Gist 2001); occurs along an 8-km corridor on northern bank of Ohio River (Kwiat and Gist 1987, Brown et al. 1995). Also recorded from Van Wert County, Ohio, and south of the Ohio River in Kentucky (Deichsel and Gist 2001, Ferner and Ferner 2002). Also introduced, established, and expanding on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (L. Ramsay, pers. comm., 2001; Deichsel and Schweiger, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:289-290).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is widely distributed in Europe. It ranges from northern Spain, northwards to northern France, southern Belgium, Luxembourg, west-central Germany, much of Austria, southwestern Czech Republic, central Slovakia and central Hungary, and eastwards to central Romania, Bulgaria, most of the Balkans (excluding most of the Aegean islands) and northwestern Anatolia, Turkey. It occurs on Jersey in the Channel Islands (United Kingdom). It is largely absent from Northern Europe (it occurs as small patchy, isolated populations in the north of its range), southern Iberia (though there are fragmented, isolated populations in central Spain), and parts of southern Italy and its larger islands (Sardinia, Sicily, and Apulia). It has been introduced to the United States. Many southern subspecies of P. muralis have been introduced to Switzerland, where they are mostly found along railway lines (Benedikt Schmidt pers. comm.). It is found from sea level up to 2,500m asl.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Continent: North-America Europe
Distribution: Austria, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Italy (incl. Elba), Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegowina, Croatia (Slavonia), Cres island, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece (incl. Samothraki), Turkey (NW Anatolia),  Spain, France, Belgium, SE Netherlands, W Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom (England, introduced) USA (introduced to Ohio [HR 8: 19, HR 19: 19], Kentucky; introduced: HR 30: 57) Canada (introduced to British Columbia in the late 1970s).  albanica: Bulgaria, Greece (etc.)  breviceps: Italy  brongniardii: NW Spain, Andorra, France  maculiventris: S Switzerland, W Austria, N Italy, “Yugoslavia”: W Slovenia, NW Croatia, SE Germany,   merremia: E Spain, S France, W Switzerland, Luxemburg, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany  nigriventris: Italy (incl. Elba and neighboring Islands), introduced to Germany and Austria
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Peter Uetz

Source: The Reptile Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 2.0 of 5

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Europe: stone walls, sides of houses, piles of rocks, railway embankments. Ohio: limestone outcrops, base of and among hills adjacent to Ohio River, foundations of abandoned buildings, retaining walls, vacant lots, parks, private gardens, yards (Brown et al. 1995).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
In dry areas, the species is largely found in humid or semi-humid habitats. It the more northern parts of its range it is mostly found in the driest areas. It can be occur in rocky and scree areas, scrubland, deciduous and coniferous woodland, orchards, vineyards, fields, stone walls, and on buildings. It is often found in human settlements including large cities and villages and railway lines which may be a possible method of dispersal. The females lay two to three clutches of two to six eggs per year. This species has been introduced in many places in Germany and the United Kingdom, often presumably by hobbyists (e.g. terrarium owners).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

In Ohio, exists in dense aggregations centered on patches of favorable habitat (Brown et al. 1995). Population density in preferred habitat estimated at about 600/ha in Ohio (Kwiat and Gist 1987). In France, average density, excluding hatchlings, 531/ha (Barbault and Mou 1989). In Italy, 100/ha (see Brown et al. 1995).

Small home range size, generally averaging 5-25 sq m (Brown et al. 1995).

Feral cats can be significant predators (Brown et al. 1995).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Ohio: usually not observed in December-January, except during unseasonably warm weather (Kwiat and Gist 1987).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 10 years
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Ohio: eggs laid from mid-April to late July; up to 3 clutches annually; clutch size 2-5 (Kwiat and Gist 1987). France: breeding season April-July; average of 2 clutches/year, some older females produce 3rd clutch; sexually mature in 2 years; maximum longevity about 5 years (Barbault and Mou 1989).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Podarcis muralis muralis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Podarcis muralis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GTTCGTTGACTGTTTTCAACCAATCACAAAGACATCGGTACCTTATATCTATTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCTGGAATAGTCGGCACAGCCCTT---AGTCTTCTAATCCGAACAGAACTTAGTCAACCCGGAACTCTTCTTGGTGAT---GATCAGGTTTATAATGTTATTGTTACAGCACATGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTCTTTTTAGTAATACCTGTTATAATTGGGGGCTTCGGAAACTGATTAATCCCCCTAATA---ATTGGTGCCCCTGATATGGCATTTCCACGTATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGATTATTACCACCATCTTTATTATTACTTCTTTCATCTTCAGGCATCGAAGCAGGCGCTGGTACTGGCTGAACTGTCTACCCACCATTAGCTGGAAACATAGCCCATGCAGGAGCCTCAGTAGATCTA---ACGATCTTTTCACTTCATTTAGCCGGAGTTTCCTCTATTCTAGGTGCAATTAACTTTATTACTACCTGCATTAATATAAAACCCCCCAACATAACGCAATATCAAACGCCTCTGTTTGTATGATCTGTTCTAATTACAGCAGTACTTCTTCTTCTTTCTCTTCCTGTTTTAGCTGCT---GGCATTACTATACTGCTAACAGATCGAAACTTAAATACATCCTTTTTTGACCCAGCTGGCGGAGGGGATCCAATTCTTTACCAACATTTATTTTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTGTATATTCTTATTCTCCCAGGTTTTGGTATAATTTCTCACATTGTCACATATTATGCAGGCAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGTTATATGGGAATAGTGTGGGCTATAATATCAATCGGCTTTTTAGGCTTTATTGTATGAGCCCATCACATATTTACAGTGGGAATAGATGTTGACACTCGAGCTTACTTCACCTCAGCTACAATAATTATTGCTATCCCTACTGGGGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTT---GCAACGCTCCATGGTGGA---ACAATTAAATGAGACGCCGCCATACTATGAGCTTTAGGATTTATTTTTTTATTTACAGTAGGAGGTCTCACAGGCATTATCCTAGCTAACTCCTCATTAGATATTGTCCTTCATGATACTTACTACGTAGTTGCTCATTTCCACTATGTT---CTATCGATAGGCGCTGTATTTGCAATTATAGGCGGATTTGTTCACTGATTTCCCCTCTTTACGGGCTACACTTTACACTCTTCATGAACAAAAGTTCAATTTGGCGTAATATTTACTGGAGTTAACATAACATTTTTTCCACAACATTTTCTTGGATTAGCAGGCATGCCTCGA---CGGTACTCTGACTACCCAGATGCCTACACT---CTTTGAAACACTATTTCATCAATTGGCTCCCTGATTTCCCTCACAGCTGTAATTATAATAATATTTATTATTTGAGAAGCCCTAGCAGCTAAACGTGAAGTT---CTTACTCTTGAATTAATAAACACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Podarcis muralis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Podarcis muralis nigriventris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Podarcis muralis maculiventris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Podarcis muralis ssp

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Wolfgang Böhme, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Marc Cheylan, Hans Konrad Nettmann, László Krecsák, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Benedikt Schmidt, Petros Lymberakis, Richard Podloucky, Roberto Sindaco, Aziz Avci

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2006
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2006)
  • 2006
    Least Concern
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
It is generally an abundant species in suitable habitat.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There generally appear to be no major threats to this adaptable and widespread species. Populations are locally threatened in parts of its range, including those on islands or in mountains (for example through the development of alpine tourism in the Central Mountains of Spain). Several populations, principally in Northern Europe, are threatened by the loss of suitable habitat to agricultural intensification and overuse of pesticides. This species is frequently encountered in the pet trade, however the overall impact of this is not considered to constitute a major threat. The introduction of non-native subspecies may represent a threat to some localized populations.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and on Annex IV of the European Union Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries (e.g.. Switzerland), and occurs in a number of protected areas. The subspecies P. m. rasquinetti is listed as DD on the Spanish National Red List. This species is categorized as Least Concern in Switzerland (Monney and Meyer, 2005).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Podarcis muralis

The common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) is a species of lizard with a large distribution in Europe and well-established introduced populations in North America, where it is also called the European wall lizard. It can grow to about 20 cm (7.9 in) in total length.

Identification[edit]

The common wall lizard is a small, thin lizard whose small scales are highly variable in colour and pattern. Its coloration is generally brownish or greyish, and may occasionally be tinged with green. In some individuals, the row of spots along their backs may form a line, while others may have a reticulated pattern with dark spots on the side and scattered white spots that can be blue in the shoulder region. The tail is brown, grey or rust in colour, and may also have light bars on the sides. The belly region has six rows of larger rectangular scales that are generally reddish, pink, or orangish. Common wall lizards may also have dark markings on the throat.

Ecology[edit]

The common wall lizard prefers rocky environments, including urban settings, where it can scurry between rock, rubble, debris and buildings.

Distribution and status[edit]

The natural range spans mainland Europe, including central Spain, southern Belgium, and the Netherlands. It occurs as introduced populations in southern Britain, and also in North America.

North America[edit]

Podarcis muralis has been introduced in the United States of America and is spreading in Northern Kentucky/Cincinnati, Ohio. It is commonly observed living in limestone outcrops, rock walls, and rubble along the Ohio River basin and the surrounding seven hills.

It is referred to locally in the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area as the "Lazarus lizard",[3] as it was introduced to the area around 1950 by George Rau, a boy who was a member of the family who owned the Lazarus department store chain (now absorbed into Macy's). After he returned from a family vacation to northern Italy, he released about 10 of the reptiles near his Cincinnati home.[4] This prolific lizard has reproduced exponentially; it continues to expand its distribution range annually, and has established itself so well in southwest Ohio, it is now considered a native (although introduced) species by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources and is protected under state law (it is illegal to harm, capture, or possess this animal without a proper licence).[5]

The European wall lizard was also introduced to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in 1970, when a dozen individuals were released into the wild from a small private zoo.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wolfgang Böhme, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Marc Cheylan, Hans Konrad Nettmann, László Krecsák, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Benedikt Schmidt, Petros Lymberakis, Richard Podloucky, Roberto Sindaco & Aziz Avci (2009). "Podarcis muralis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  2. ^ P. Uetz (ed.). "Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768)". The Reptile Database. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ Dennis, Spencer (May 23, 2011). "Lazarus lizards now part of our culture". Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  4. ^ G. Deichsel & D. H. Gist (2001). "On the origin of the common wall lizards Podarcis muralis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) in Cincinnati, Ohio". Herpetological Review 32: 230–232. 
  5. ^ "Laws: Wild Animal Propagation and Related Activities" (PDF). Division of Wildlife, Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Publication 306 (R304). Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  6. ^ G. Deichsel & S. Schweiger (2004). "Geographic distribution: Podarcis muralis". Herpetological Review 35 (3): 289–290. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!