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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This pitviper is found along Pacific lowlands and premontane regions from Guatemala to northwestern and central Costa Rica. On the Atlantic versant, it occurs disjunctly in eastern Guatemala and in some interior valleys of Honduras; it is also found in the Great Lakes drainage in Nicaragua (Savage 2002). Elevational range extends from sea level to 1,400 meters (Wilson and Johnson 2010).
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Continent: Middle-America
Distribution: Mexico (Yucatan), W Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa  Rica, Panama, Guatemala
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Source: The Reptile Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This terrestrial, primarily nocturnal snake is found in dry habitats, including thorn scrub and dry forests, and it also ranges into low and premontane moist forests (Savage 2002, Campbell and Lamar 2004).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Porthidium ophryomegas

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Porras, L.W., Lamar, W., Chaves, G., Solórzano, A., Sunyer, J. & Dwyer, Q.

Reviewer/s
Bowles, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern because it is relatively widespread, and because it is not declining fast enough for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is a common species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Fires and deforestation are the major threats.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in several protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Porthidium ophryomegas

Common names: slender hognosed pitviper,[2] western hog-nosed viper.[3]

Porthidium ophryomegas is a venomous pitviper species found in Central America. No subspecies are currently recognized.[4]

Description[edit]

Adults usually grow to a length of 40–60 cm (16–24 in) and have a relatively slender build. Females grow larger than males and are often more than 60 cm (24 in) in length, while males are usually about 45 cm (18 in). One exceptional specimen, a female, was reported to measure 77 cm (30 in).[2]

The color pattern consists of a tan, brown, gray or grayish-brown ground color overlaid with a narrow white, yellow or rust brown vertebral stripe and 24–40 dark brown to almost black blotches that oppose or alternate across the vertebral line. The blotches have thin white borders that extend at roughly a right angle from the vertebral line.[2]

Geographic range[edit]

Found in Central America in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The type locality given is "les terres chaudes du versant occidental de la Cordillère Escuintla (Guatémala)" (= warm regions on western slope of Cordillera, Escuintla, Guatemala).[1]

Habitat[edit]

Occurs in seasonally dry forests, including tropical dry forests, arid forests, subtropical dry forests, and the more arid parts of tropical moist forests.[2]

Behavior[edit]

When threatened, these snakes have been known to defend themselves vigorously, often striking with such force that the body is thrown forwards or even leaves the ground.[3]

Feeding[edit]

The diet consists of rodents and lizards. Juveniles feed mostly on lizards, as well as small frogs if available.[3]

Reproduction[edit]

Oviviviparous, females give birth to live young that are about 6 inches (15 cm) in length.[3]

Venom[edit]

No deaths have been reported resulting from bites from this species. They are, however, quick to strike and several cases of serious envenomation have required hospitalization. According to Bolaños (1984), of the 477 cases of snakebite in Costa Rica in 1979, three were due to these snakes.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c d e Campbell JA, Lamar WW. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. 2 volumes. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London. 870 pp. 1500 plates. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
  3. ^ a b c d Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  4. ^ "Porthidium ophryomegas". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bocourt, M.F. 1868. Descriptions de quelques Crotaliens nouveaux appartenant au genre Bothrops, recueillis dans le Guatémala. Annales des sciences naturelles, Series 5, 10: 201-202. ("Bothrops ophryomegas n. sp.")
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