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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in temperate montane regions of moderate to high elevations across the Mexican Plateau from the Volcn de Toluca (Zinantecatl) in the State of Mexico to the highlands of west-central Veracruz, from here southward in the Sierra de Acatepec in Puebla and extreme northern Oaxaca; it is present in the Mesa del Sur in Oaxaca including the Sierra Jurez, in the mountains that extend northward from Cerro San Felipe, and in the Sierra Mixe and the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero. It has also been recently reported from Hidalgo. The elevational range is from about 1,490 to slightly above 3,000 m asl.
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Continent: Middle-America
Distribution: Mexico (WC Puebla, Veracruz, Morelos, Tlaxcala, C Guerrero, C Oaxaca,  S Hidalgo)  ravus: Mexico (central plateau)  brunneus: Mexico (Oaxaca: Mesa del Sur)  exiguus: Mexico (Guerrero: Sierra Madre del Sur)
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© Peter Uetz

Source: The Reptile Database

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Sistrurus ravus
Catalog Number: USNM 25051
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: South Tableland, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 191.; Smith, H. M. & Taylor, E. H. 1950. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (part 2) (8): 351.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

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Syntype for Sistrurus ravus
Catalog Number: USNM 25050
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: ; Juvenile
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: South Tableland, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 191.; Smith, H. M. & Taylor, E. H. 1950. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (part 2) (8): 351.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in primary and secondary pine-oak forest, oak forest, cloud forest, coniferous forest, dry scrubland, and upper tropical deciduous forest. It can also be found in agricultural land, such as cattle pasture. It is a viviparous species.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 14.8 years (captivity)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Canseco-Mrquez, L. & Mendoza-Quijano, F.

Reviewer/s
Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is a common species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is threatened by habitat loss, generally through clearing of land with fire for conversion to agricultural use. It is also directly killed be people when it is encountered.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is protected by Mexican law under the category Pr (Special Protection). It is present in at least three protected areas including the Omiltemi State Park. Further research is needed into the taxonomy and ecology of this species.
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Wikipedia

Sistrurus ravus

Common names: Mexican pigmy rattlesnake,[3] Mexican pygmy rattlesnake,[4] more.

Sistrurus ravus is a venomous pitviper species, found only in Mexico. Three subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[5]

Description[edit]

Adults of this species usually grow to a length of 40–65 centimetres (16–26 in), but may reach more than 70 cm (28 in). They are moderately stout in build.[4]

The distinguishing characteristics for S. r. ravus include parietal scales that are highly variable in shape and particularly large, less than 3 prefoveals, 21 midbody dorsal scales, 2–4 tail bands and a relatively large rattle.[4]

Common names[edit]

Mexican pigmy rattlesnake,[3] Mexican pygmy rattlesnake.[4] Local names are víbora-cascabel pigmea-mexicana (Spanish),[5] colcóatl, cascabel enana, víbora de cascabel and viborita de cascabel.[4]

Geographic range[edit]

Found only in Mexico in the mountains in the center and south of the country, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Its range includes the southeastern part of the Mexican Plateau in the highlands of Mexico, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, and the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero. The type locality given is the "Table land of Mexico." Cochran (1961) interpreted this to be the "south tableland, Veracruz, Mexico."[2]

Campbell and Lamar (2004)[4] describe this species as being found across the Mexican Plateau in the temperate regions of moderate to high elevations. They estimate the vertical distribution to be from about 1,490 metres (4,890 ft) above sea level to a little over 3,000 m (9,800 ft) altitude.[4]

Subspecies[edit]

Subspecies[5]Taxon author[5]Common name[6]Geographic range[4]
S. r. brunneusHarris & Simmons, 1977Oaxacan pigmy rattlesnakeMexico in the highlands of Oaxaca.
S. r. exiguusCampbell & Armstrong, 1979Guerreran pigmy rattlesnakeMexico in the Sierra Madre del Sur of central Guerrero.
S. r. ravus(Cope, 1865)Central Mexican pigmy rattlesnakeMexico in the Altiplanicie Meridional, including the states of México, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Veracruz.

Taxonomy[edit]

A study using mitochodrial DNA strongly suggests that S. ravus is part of a species complex including Crotalus triseriatus, Crotalus pusillus, Crotalus aquilus, and Crotalus lepidus.[7] This study also confirmed strong genetic differentiation among the three subspecies aligning with geographic barriers. A follow-up study using seven nuclear markers places S. ravus basal to all other members of the species complex.[8]

Conservation[edit]

Despite being listed as of "Least Concern" by the IUCN, S. ravus was listed as "threatened" by the Mexican government in 2010.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ L. Canseco-Márquez & F. Mendoza-Quijano (2007). "Crotalus ravus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ a b Klauber LM. 1997. Rattlesnakes: Their Habitats, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind. Second Edition. 2 volumes. Reprint, University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-21056-5.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Campbell JA, Lamar WW. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London. 870 pp. 1500 plates. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
  5. ^ a b c d "Sistrurus ravus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 4 March 2007. 
  6. ^ Sistrurus ravus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 12 December 2007.
  7. ^ . doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02431.x.  Missing or empty |title= (help) edit
  8. ^ Bryson, Robert W., Jr.; Linkem, Charles W.; Dorcas, Michael E.; Lathrop, Amy; Jones, Jason M.; Alvarado-Diaz, Javier; Grusnwald, Christoph I.; Murphy, Robert W. (2014). "Multilocus species delimitation in the Crotalus triseriatus species group (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species". Zootaxa 3826 (3): 475–496. 
  9. ^ NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5173091&fecha=30/12/2010
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