The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • American Psychological Association. 1989. Stimulus Control of Antipredator Behavior in Newborn and Juvenile Garter Snakes. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103/3: 233-242.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Barton, A. J. 1956. A statistical study of Thamnophis brachystoma (Cope) with comments on the kinship of T. butleri (Cope). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 69: 71-82.
  • Behler, J., F. King. 2000. National Audubon Society: Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc..
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Brattstrom, B. 1965. Body Temperatures of Reptiles. American Midland Naturalist, 73/2: 376-422.
  • Carpenter, C, 1951. Comparative Ecology of the Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis s. sirtalis), the Ribbon Snake (Thamnophis s. sauritus), and Butler's Garter Snake (Thamnophis butleri) in Mixed Populations. Dissertation..
  • Carpenter, C, 1953. A Study of Hibernacula and Hibernating Associations of Snakes and Amphibians in Michigan. Ecology, 34/1: 74-80.
  • Carpenter, C, 1956. Body Temperature of Three Species of Thamnophis. Ecology, 37/4: 732-735.
  • Collins, J. T. 1997. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians and Reptiles, Fourth Edition. ii + 40
  • Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Conant, Roger. 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200.
  • Conant, Roger. 1950. On the taxonomic status of Thamnophis butleri (Cope). Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 9 (4): 71-77.
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1888. On the Eutaenia of Southeastern Indiana. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 11: 399-400 [1889].
  • Cope, E.D. 1889. On the Eutaenia of Southeastern Indiana. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 11: 399-400
  • Davis, D. Dwight. 1932. Occurence of Thamnophis butleri Cope in Wisconsin. Copeia 1932 (3): 113-118.
  • Environment Canada, 2002. "Species at Risk: Butler's Gartersnake" (On-line). Environment Canada. Accessed March 21, 2002 at
  • Fitzpatrick, B.M. et al. 2008. Distinctiveness in the face of gene flow: hybridization between specialist and generalist gartersnakes. Molecular Ecology 17: 4107–4117.
  • Frank & Kate's Web Page (Online source) External link.
  • Gould, F. An Introduction to the Natural History of North American Garter Snakes with Basic Triage Practices.. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Vol. 21 (3-4). Accessed 03/15/02 at
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp.
  • Hallmen, Martin. 2009. Umbau eines Miniteiches zu einem kleinen Freilandterrarium für Butler’s Strumpfbandnattern Thamnophis butleri. Ophidia 3 (2).
  • Harding, J. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  • Holman, J., J. Harding, M. Hensley, G. Dudderar. 1999. Michigan Snakes. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Extension/MSU Museum.
  • Jayne, B, , Bennet, A. 1990. Selection of Locomotor Performance Capacity in a Natural Population of Garter Snakes. Evolution, 44/5: 1204-1229.
  • King, Richard B.; Oldham, Michael J.; Weller, Wayne F.; Wynn, Douglas. 1997. Historic and current amphibian and reptile distributions in the Island Region of Western Lake Erie. American Midland Naturalist 138(1):153-173.
  • Minton S A. 1980. Thamnophis butleri (Cope). Butler's garter snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles No. 258 1980: 1-2.
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal. 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 .
  • Rossman, D. A., N. B. Ford, and R. A. Seigel. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. v + 332
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Ruthven,A.G. 1908. Variations and genetic relationships of the garter-snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 61: 201 pp.
  • Shine, Richard, 1991. Intersexual Dietary Divergence and the Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism in Snakes. American Naturalist, 138/1: 103-122.
  • Smith, A.G. 1945. The status of Thamnophis butleri COPE, and a redescription of Thamnophis brachystoma (COPE). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 58: 147-154.
  • Stejneger,L. 1894. Notes on Butler’s Garter Snake. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17: 593-594.
  • The Center for Reptile Conservation and Management. "Butler's Garter Snake: Thamnophis butleri" (On-line ). Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne. Accessed 03/21/02 at
  • Toronto Zoo. 2002. "Adopt-A-Pond" (On-line ). Toronto Zoo. Accessed 03/21/02 at
  • Uetz P. (2013). TIGR Reptile Database (version Oct 2007). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Voris, H.K., D.R. Karns, K.A. Feldheim, B. Kechavarzi, and M. Rinehart. 2008. Multiple paternity in the oriental-australian rear-fanged watersnakes (Homalopsidae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 3: 88-102.


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