Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs only in highly fragmented populations in western and central Portugal, occurring more contiguously in Aveiro in central Portugal. In western Portugal it occurs down to sea-level in many fragmented sites, while in central Portugal it occurs in hilly sites above 500m. In Spain it is known from two areas in on the northern slopes of the central mountain system at 500-1,200m. It also occurs at Coto Doñana in southwestern Spain at sea-level, and on the Berlenga Islands in Portugal (as a separate subspecies, P.c. berlengensis).
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Continent: Europe
Distribution: Spain (dunes of Coto Doñana, south of Andalusia, more than 400 km south of the Sistema Central range (Magraner, 1986); this was often refuted (Peréz-Mellado, 1997, 1998; Barbadillo et al., 1999); mountains to the Sistema Central and along the Atlantic lowlands (Sá-Sousa 1999, 2000).  berlengensis: Berlengas islands off the western coast of Portugal (Vicente, 1985);
Type locality: Berlenga Island, Portugal.  
Type locality: Laguna de San Marco, La Alberca, Prov. Salamanca, Spain.
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Source: The Reptile Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
In Spain and central Portugal it occurs in oak forest. At sea-level it lives only in sand dunes. It lays one to three egg clutches a year, with one to five eggs in each.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Iñigo Martínez-Solano

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered, because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its Extent of Occurrence, in its Area of Occupancy, in the extent and quality of its habitat, in the number of locations, and in the number of mature individuals.

History
  • 2006
    Endangered
    (IUCN 2006)
  • 2006
    Endangered
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Population

Population
It can be common in suitable habitat. The southern populations are generally very small, but can be abundant in tiny areas. However, many populations are probably in decline, especially in the south of its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The southern populations are almost certainly at risk from climate change. Loss of habitat due to touristic developments in the south, and wood plantations (pine) in central Portugal are also serious threats. Fires are an additional threat.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Many of the southern populations are protected (including in the Coto Doñana National Park). In central Portugal and Spain, some populations are in natural parks.
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Wikipedia

Podarcis carbonelli

Podarcis carbonelli, commonly known as Carbonell's wall lizard, is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae. It is endemic to Portugal and Spain.

This lizard reaches a total length (including tail) of 20 cm (8 in), and feeds primarily on small invertebrates such as insects, arachnids, and snails.[2] Its natural habitats are temperate forests and sandy shores. Habitat loss threatens its survival.

Etymology[edit]

The specific name, carbonelli, is in honor of "J. Carbonell" who is the wife of Pérez-Mellado.[3]

Description[edit]

Carbonell's wall lizard grows to a snout-to-vent length of 6.5 cm (2.6 in) with a tail about twice as long. Females tend to be slightly larger than males in some localities. The dorsal surface is usually grey or brown, but is sometimes green (especially so in males), copiously speckled with rows of dark markings. The flanks may also be somewhat greenish with reticulated, dark markings. The underparts are whitish and there are often small blue spots along the edge of the belly. Carbonell's wall lizard much resembles the closely related Bocage's wall lizard, but that species tends to have more clearly defined markings and a yellow, orange or pink belly, and lacks the blue spots.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Carbonell's wall lizard is endemic to Portugal and Spain. Its range consists of a number of isolated populations in western and central Portugal, another in Coto Doñana in southwestern Spain and a separate subspecies is present on the Berlenga Islands off the coast of Portugal. Some of the populations are in hills at altitudes of over 500 m (1,640 ft), where the lizard occurs in oak woodland and scrub, and others are in sand dunes near the coast.[1]

Behaviour[edit]

Carbonell's wall lizard is often seen on dry banks where it may be present in large numbers. It takes refuge in cracks and among tree roots. It feeds mainly on arthropods but, particularly on the Berlenga Islands, also consumes snails. In central Portugal there is usually one clutch of two eggs each year, but in the Berlengas, several clutches of up to four eggs are laid. These take ten to fifteen weeks to hatch.[4]

Status[edit]

Carbonell's wall lizard has a number of isolated populations and its total geographic range is less than 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi). It lives in oak woodland and although some populations are in protected areas, others are subject to habitat degradation. Although it is common in some suitable habitats, in general the population is thought to be declining and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed it as being an "endangered species".[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Paulo Sá-Sousa, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Iñigo Martínez-Solano (2009). "Podarcis carbonelli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-09-18. 
  2. ^ Lagartija de Carbonell p. 164
  3. ^ Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Podarcis carbonelli, p. 47).
  4. ^ a b Arnold, E. Nicholas; Ovenden, Denys W. (2002). Field Guide: Reptiles & Amphibians of Britain & Europe. Collins & Co. p. 153. ISBN 9780002199643. 

Further reading[edit]

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