Overview

Brief Summary

Rhizobacteria are legumes’ best friends. All plants need nitrogen. Most can only get it from soil. But legumes, such as beans, can get it from air. This is thanks to rhizobacteria. These bacteria live in legumes’ roots. They turn nitrogen from air into a form the plant can use. Plants return the favor by giving the bacteria food and shelter.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Many bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae (a clade of proteobacteria) are able to infect and establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis on the roots of leguminous plants. This symbiosis is of economic importance to humans in a variety of ways and decreases the need for nitrogen fertilizer for some key agriculturally important plants (e.g. soybean and alfalfa). The establishment of the symbiosis involves complex interactions between the plant host and the bacteria, resulting in the formation of a novel organ, the nodule, which the bacteria colonize as intracellular symbionts. Stacey et al. (2006) reviewed recent discoveries relating to how this symbiosis is established.

  • Stacey, G., M. Libault, L. Brechenmacher, et al. 2006. Genetics and functional genomics of legume nodulation. Current Opinions in Plant Biology 9(2): 110-121.
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Wikipedia

Rhizobiaceae

The Rhizobiaceae are a family of proteobacteria, including many species of rhizobia, as well as plant parasites such as Agrobacterium. The Rhizobiaceae are, like all Proteobacteria, Gram-negative. They are aerobic and the cells are usually rod-shaped.[2] Many species of the Rhizobiaceae are diazotrophs, they are able to fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots.

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[3] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [4]






















Rhizobium lusitanum Valverde et al. 2006



Rhizobium rhizogenes (Riker et al. 1930) Young et al. 2001[5]



Rhizobium rubi (Hildebrand 1940) Young et al. 2001[5]





Rhizobium multihospitium Han et al. 2008



Rhizobium tropici Martínez-Romero et al. 1991




Rhizobium miluonense Gu et al. 2008





Rhizobium leguminosarum (Frank 1879) Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008[6]






Rhizobium endophyticum López-López et al. 2011



Rhizobium tibeticum Hou et al. 2009




Rhizobium etli Segovia et al. 1993





Rhizobium pisi Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008




Rhizobium phaseoli Dangeard 1926 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Ramírez-Bahena et al. 2008



Rhizobium fabae Tian et al. 2008




Rhizobium hainanense Chen et al. 1997





Arthrobacter viscosus Gasdorf et al. 1965[7]



Rhizobium alamii Berge et al. 2009



Rhizobium mesosinicum Lin et al. 2009





Rhizobium sullae Squartini et al. 2002




Rhizobium indigoferae Wei et al. 2002




Rhizobium gallicum Amarger et al. 1997



Rhizobium yanglingense Tan et al. 2001




Rhizobium mongolense Van Berkum et al. 1998



Rhizobium oryzae Peng et al. 2008




Rhizobium loessense Wei et al. 2003




Rhizobium tubonense Zhang et al. 2011







Rhizobium cellulosilyticum García-Fraile et al. 2007



Rhizobium soli Yoon et al. 2010





Rhizobium galegae Lindström 1989



Rhizobium vignae Ren et al. 2011





Rhizobium huautlense Wang et al. 1998



Rhizobium alkalisoli Lu et al. 2009












Aureimonas altamirensis (Jurado et al. 2006) Rathsack et al. 2011[6][8][9]



Aureimonas frigidaquae (Kim et al. 2008) Rathsack et al. 2011[8][9]




Aureimonas ureilytica (Weon et al. 2007) Rathsack et al. 2011[8][9]




Aurantimonas coralicida Denner et al. 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011.[6][8]




Fulvimarina pelagi Cho and Giovannoni 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011[6][8]




Martelella mediterranea Rivas et al. 2005[6][8]




Rhizobium undicola (de Lajudie et al. 1998) Young et al. 2001[5]




Rhizobium vitis (Ophel and Kerr 1990) Young et al. 2001[5]





Rhizobium borbori Zhang et al. 2011







Beijerinckia fluminensis Döbereiner and Ruschel 1958[10]



Rhizobium larrymoorei (Bouzar and Jones 2001) Young 2004[5]




Rhizobium radiobacter (Beijerinck and van Delden 1902) Young et al. 2001[5][11]





Rhizobium selenitireducens corrig. Hunter et al. 2008



Rhizobium rosettiformans Kaur et al. 2011






Rhizobium daejeonense Quan et al. 2005






Rhizobium aggregatum (Hirsch and Müller 1986) Kaur et al. 2011



Blastobacter capsulatus Hirsch and Müller 1986[12]




Rhizobium giardinii Amarger et al. 1997











Ensifer mexicanus Lloret et al. 2011



Ensifer terangae (De Lajudie et al. 1994) Young 2003[13]




Ensifer saheli (De Lajudie et al. 1994) Young 2003[13]




Ensifer kostiensis (Nick et al. 1999) Young 2003[13]




Ensifer kummerowiae (Wei et al. 2002) Young 2003[13]




Ensifer fredii (Scholla and Elkan 1984) Young 2003[13]



Sinorhizobium americanum corrig. Toledo et al. 2004





Ensifer arboris (Nick et al. 1999) Young 2003[13]



Ensifer garamanticus Merabet et al. 2010




Ensifer meliloti (Dangeard 1926) Young 2003[13]



Ensifer numidicus Merabet et al. 2010





Ensifer adhaerens Casida 1982[6]




References[edit]

  1. ^ a b J.P. Euzéby. "Proteobacteria (scroll down for Rhizobiaceae)". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  2. ^ Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, Part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. New York, New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6.
  3. ^ Sayers et al. "Rhizobiaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  4. ^ All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database [3]. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f These species were formerly classified in the genus Agrobacterium.
  6. ^ a b c d e f This is the type species for the genus.
  7. ^ Arthrobacter viscosus is currently classified in the Micrococcaceae. See Arthrobacter.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Species found in the genera Aurantimonas, Aureimonas, Fulvimarina, and Martelella are all currently classified in the Aurantimonadaceaea.
  9. ^ a b c The species in the genus Aureimonas were formerly classified in the genus Aurantimonas.
  10. ^ Beijerinckia fluminensis is currently classified in the Beijerinckiaceae.
  11. ^ This includes Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942.
  12. ^ Blastobacter capsulatus is currently classified in the Bradyrhizobiaceae.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g These species were formerly classified in the genus Sinorhizobium.
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