The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Harrison, J. A. 1985. Giant camels from the Cenozoic of North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleontology 5:1-29.
  • Honey, J. G., J. A. Harrison, D. R. Prothero, and M. S. Stevens. 1998. Camelidae. Pages 439-462 in: Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Janis, C. M., J. M. Theodor, and B. Boisvert. 2002. Locomotor evolution in camels revisited: A quantitative analysis of pedal anatomy and the acquisition of the pacing gait. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(1):110-121.
  • McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • McKenna, M.C. 1966. Synopsis of Whitneyan and Arikareean camelid phylogeny. American Museum Novitates 2253:1-11.
  • Prothero, D. R. 1996. Camelidae. Pages 609-651 in: The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America. D. R. Prothero and R. J. Emry, eds. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Stanley, H.F. , M. Kadwell, and J.C. Wheeler. 1994. Molecular evolution of the family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 256(1345):1-6.
  • Whistler, D. P. and S. D. Webb. 2005. New goatlike camelid from the late Pliocene of Tecopa Lake Basin, California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 503:1-40.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204


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