Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:42Public Records:39
Specimens with Sequences:42Public Species:7
Specimens with Barcodes:42Public BINs:6
Species:7         
Species With Barcodes:7         
          
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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Camelidae

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Wikipedia

Camelid

Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only living family in the suborder Tylopoda. The extant members of this group are: dromedaries, Bactrian camels, llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos.

Camelids are even-toed ungulates classified in the order Artiodactyla, along with pigs, hippopotamus, deer, giraffes, cattle, goats, antelope, and many others.

Characteristics[edit]

Camelid feet lack functional hooves, the toe bones being embedded in a broad cutaneous pad.[1]

Camelids are large animals with slender necks and long legs, and are strictly herbivorous. They differ from true ruminants in a number of ways. Their dentition show traces of vestigial central incisors in the upper jaw, and the third incisors are developed into canine-like tusks. Camelids also have true canine teeth and tusk-like premolars, which are separated from the molars by a gap. The musculature of the hind limbs differs from those of other ungulates in that the legs are attached to the body only at the top of the thigh, rather than attached by skin and muscle from the knee downwards. Because of this, camelids have to lie down by resting on their knees with their legs tucked underneath their bodies.[1] They are pseudoruminants with three-chambered stomachs, rather than four-chambered ones; their upper lips are split in two, with each part separately mobile; and, uniquely among mammals, their red blood cells are elliptical. They also have a unique type of antibodies, lacking the light chain, in addition to the normal antibodies found in other mammals. These so-called heavy-chain antibodies are being used to develop single-domain antibodies with potential pharmaceutical applications.

They do not have hooves, rather they have two-toed feet with toenails and soft foot pads (Tylopoda is Latin for "padded foot"). The main weight of the animal is borne by these tough, leathery sole pads. The South American camelids, adapted to steep and rocky terrain, can move the pads on their toes to maintain grip.[2] Many fossil camelids were unguligrade and probably hooved, in contrast to all living species.[3]

The two Afro-Asian camel species have developed extensive adaptations to their lives in harsh, near-waterless environments. Wild populations of the Bactrian camel are even able to drink brackish water, and some herds live in nuclear test areas.[4]

Comparative table of the six camel-like mammals in the family Camelidae (ordered by weight):

Camel-like mammalImageClassWeight
Camelus
Bactrian camel2011 Trampeltier 1528.JPGTrue camel300 to 1,000 kg (660 to 2,200 lb)
Dromedary
or
Arabian camel
07. Camel Profile, near Silverton, NSW, 07.07.2007.jpgTrue camel300 to 600 kg (660 to 1,320 lb)
Lama
LlamaDomestic llama (2009-05-19).jpgNew World camel130 to 200 kg (290 to 440 lb)
GuanacoGuanaco 09.24.jpgSouth American camelc. 90 kg (200 lb)
Vicugna
AlpacaUnshorn alpaca grazing.jpgNew World camel48 to 84 kg (106 to 185 lb)
VicuñaVicunacrop.jpgSouth American camel35 to 65 kg (77 to 143 lb)

Evolution[edit]

Map of the world showing distribution of camelids, prior to modern introductions to Australia and elsewhere: Solid black lines indicate possible migration routes.

Camelids are unusual in that their modern distribution is almost the reverse of their origin. Camelids first appeared very early in the evolution of the even-toed ungulates, around 45 million years ago during the middle Eocene, in present-day North America. Among the earliest camelids was the rabbit-sized Protylopus, which still had four toes on each foot. By the late Eocene, around 35 million years ago, camelids such as Poebrotherium had lost the two lateral toes, and were about the size of a modern goat.[3][5]

The family diversified and prospered, but remained confined to the North American continent until only about two or three million years ago, when representatives arrived in Asia, and (as part of the Great American Interchange that followed the formation of the Isthmus of Panama) South America. A high arctic camel from this time period has been documented in the far northern reaches of Canada.

The original camelids of North America remained common until the quite recent geological past, but then disappeared, possibly as a result of hunting or habitat alterations by the earliest human settlers, and possibly as a result of changing environmental conditions after the last ice age, or a combination of these factors. Three species groups survived: the dromedary of northern Africa and southwest Asia; the Bactrian camel of central Asia; and the South American group, which has now diverged into a range of forms that are closely related, but usually classified as four species: llamas, alpacas, guanacos, and vicuñas.

Fossil camelids show a wider variety than their modern counterparts. One North American genus, Titanotylopus, stood 3.5 m at the shoulder, compared with the about 2 m of the largest modern camelids. Other extinct camelids included small, gazelle-like animals, such as Stenomylus. Finally, a number of very tall, giraffe-like camelids were adapted to feeding on leaves from high trees, including such genera as Aepycamelus, and Oxydactylus.[3]

Scientific classification[edit]

South American vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)

Family Camelidae

Phylogenetic tree[edit]

Camelid ancestorNorth America

12-25 mya

Lamini10.4 mya1.4 myaGuanacoSouth America
Vicuña
Camelini8 myaBactrian camelAsia
DromedaryAsia, Africa

Extinct genera of camelids[edit]

Genus nameEpochRemarks
AepycamelusMioceneTall, s-shaped neck, true padded camel feet
CamelopsPliocene-PleistoceneLarge, with true camel feet, hump status uncertain
FloridatragulusEarly MioceneA bizarre species of camel with a long snout
EulamaopsPleistoceneFrom South America
HemiaucheniaMiocene-PleistoceneA North and South American lamine genus
MegacamelusMiocene-PleistoceneThe largest species of camelid
MegatylopusMiocene-Early PleistoceneLarge camelid from North America
OxydactylusEarly MioceneThe earliest member of the "giraffe camel" family
PalaeolamaPleistoceneA North and South American lamine genus
PoebrotheriumOligoceneThis species of camel took the place of deer and antelope in the White River Badlands.
ProcamelusMioceneAncestor of extinct Titanolypus and modern Camelus
ProtylopusLate EoceneEarliest member of the camelids
StenomylusEarly MioceneSmall, gazelle-like camel that lived in large herds on the Great Plains
TitanotylopusMiocene-PleistoceneTall, humped, true camel feet

The newly discovered giant Syrian camel has yet to be officially described.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1987). A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. p. 208. ISBN 0-521-34697-5. 
  2. ^ Franklin, William (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 512–515. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  3. ^ a b c Savage, RJG, & Long, MR (1986). Mammal Evolution: an illustrated guide. New York: Facts on File. pp. 216–221. ISBN 0-8160-1194-X. 
  4. ^ Wild Bactrian Camels Critically Endangered, Group Says National Geographic, 3 December 2002
  5. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. pp. 274–277. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
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Lamini

Lamini (members are called lamoids) is a tribe of the subfamily Camelinae. It contains two genera and four species, all exclusively from South America: llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos. The former two are domesticated species, while the latter two are only found in the wild. All lack sexual dimorphism. The four species can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

The digestive system of lamoids allows them to digest certain toxins.[1] Laminoids also lack a gallbladder.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

Alpaca (Vicugna pacos)[edit]

The alpaca, a domestic camelid, weights between 50 and 65 kg (110 and 143 lb), while its height at the shoulder is 94–104 cm (37–41 in). It is slightly larger than the vicuña. Normally, the alpaca is found in the Andes in Peru and Bolivia, though it also inhabits northern Chile and northwestern Argentina.[3] There are about 3.5 million alpacas in the world. In the 1980s, alpacas started being exported to other countries for farming purposes: they can be found in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, though the vast majority still reside in South America.[4]

The alpaca is mainly used for its wool. Out of the domestic camelids, the alpaca produces wool with longer and finer fiber than the llama,[3] with a diameter of 18–25 micrometers per strand.[5]

Guanaco at Louisville Zoo

Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)[edit]

The guanaco is a wild camelid, standing at 100–120 cm (39–47 in) at the shoulder[3] and 150–160 cm (59–63 in) at the head. It can weigh up to 140 kilograms (310 lb).[6] Its pelage is longer than that of the vicuña but shorter than that of the alpaca; it is considered to be of excellent quality and has a light brown, reddish, or brown-yellow color.[7] The diameter of its fleece's fibers varies between 16 and 18 micrometers.

90% of the world's guanacos are in Argentina,[7] distributed from the islands of Beagle Channel and the southern extremity of the Patagonia to the Puna grassland in northeastern Argentina. Guancos can also be found in Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru.[8]

Llama (Lama glama)[edit]

The llama is the largest of the extant laminoids and weighs 130–150 kilograms (290–330 lb) with a height of 109–119 cm (43–47 in) at the shoulder.[3] Llamas are not a natural species; rather, they were domesticated by the Peruvians and Bolivians of the highlands.[9] Commercial trade led to the llama's current abundance in Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and northeast Argentina. There are bands of llamas in the United States, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand.

The color and length of the llama's wool is variable, depending on the race. The diameter of llama wool's fiber varies between 20 and 80 micrometers, depending on whether the llamas were raised for its wool or as a pack animal.

Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)[edit]

The vicuña is the smallest camelid, with a shoulder height of 75–100 cm (30–39 in) and a weight of 40–60 kg (88–130 lb). Its coat is mainly beige in color and is said to make "the best wool in the world", with the average fiber diameter between 11 and 14 micrometers.[10] Like rodents, the vicuña has continuously-growing incisors. It lives only in areas of high altitude – 3,200 m (10,500 ft) or greater – in the highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fowler, Murray E. (1998). Medicine and surgery of South American camelids: llama, alpaca, vicuña, guanaco (2nd ed.). Ames, Iowa: Blackwell. ISBN 0813803977. 
  2. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008). Strömberg, N., ed. "Guanaco: Lama guanicoe". GlobalTwitcher. 
  3. ^ a b c d Stahl, Peter W. (4 April 2008). "Animal Domestication in South America". In Silverman, Helaine; Isbell, William. Handbook of South American Archaeology. Springer. pp. 121–130. ISBN 9780387752280. 
  4. ^ Castillo-Ruiz, Alexandra. "Lama pacos: alpaca". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  5. ^ Quiggle, Charlotte (Fall 2000). "Alpaca: An Ancient Luxury". Interweave Knits: 74–76. 
  6. ^ "Guanaco: Lama guanicoe". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  7. ^ a b "San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Guanaco". Zoological Society of San Diego. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  8. ^ Baldi, B.; Lichtenstein, G.; González, B.; Funes, M.; Cuéller, E.; Villalba, L.; Hoces, D.; Puig, S. (2008). "Lama guanicoe". IUCN Redlist. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  9. ^ Furlong, Charles Wellington (October 1912 – March 1913). "Hunting the Guanaco". The Outing Magazine 61 (1): 5. 
  10. ^ "Mammal Guide: Vicuña". Animal Planet. Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
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