The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Breda, M. and M. Marchetti. 2005. Systematical and biochronological review of Plio-Pleistocene Alceini (Cervidae; Mammalia) from Eurasia, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 24:775–805.
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  • DeMiguel, D., M. Fortelius, B. Azanza and J. Morales. 2008. Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:13. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-13
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  • Douzery,E. and E. Randi. 1997. The mitochondrial control region of Cervidae: evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic content. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14:1154-1166.
  • Duarte, J. M. B., S. González, and J. E. Maldonado. 2008. The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(1):17-22.
  • Eisenberg, J. 1981. The Mammalian Radiations: An Analysis of trends in evolution, adaptation, and behavior.. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Eisenberg, J. F. 1987. The evolutionary history of the Cervidae with special reference to the South American radiation. Pages 60-64 in Biology and Management of the Cervidae. C. M. Wemmer, ed. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Eisenberg, J. F. 2000. The contemporary Cervidae of Central and South America. Pages 189-202 in Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller, eds. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Escalante, A., F. Ayala. 1995. Evolutionary origin of Plasmodium and other Apicomplexa based on rRNA. Proceedings from the National Academy of Science, 92: 5793-5797.
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  • Fernández, M. H. and E. S. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews 80(2):269-302.
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  • Fulbright, T., L. Ortega-S.. 2006. White-Tailed Deer Habitat. College Station: Texas A&M Press.
  • Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet, and A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(1):101-117.
  • Groves, C. P. and P. Grubb. 1987. Relationships of living deer. Pages 21–59 in Biology and Management of the Cervidae. C.M. Wemmer, ed. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Grubb, P. 2000. Valid and invalid nomenclature of living and fossil deer, Cervidae. Acta Theriologica 45:289-307.
  • Hassanin, A. and E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. Systematic Biology 52 (2):206-228.
  • Heintz, E. and F. Poplin. 1981. Alces carnutorum (Laugel, 1862) du Pléistocène de Saint-Prest (France). Systématique et evolution des Alcinés (Cervidae, Mammalia). Quartärpaläontologie 4:105–122.
  • Herna ́ndez Ferna ́ndez, M., E. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews, 80: 269–302.
  • Hiller, I. 1996. The White-Tailed Deer. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
  • Huffman, B. 2010. "Cervidae" (On-line). Ultimate Ungulate. Accessed April 13, 2011 at http://www.ultimateungulate.com/cetartiodactyla/Cervidae.html.
  • IUCN, 2010. "Mammals" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed April 15, 2011 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/search.
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  • Kahlke, H. D. 1990. On the evolution, distribution and taxonomy of fossil Elk/Moose. Quartärpaläontologie 8:83–106.
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  • McCarthy, A., R. Blouch, D. Moore. 1998. Deer: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Cambridge, UK: IUCN.
  • McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Meijaard, E. and C. P. Groves. 2004. Morphometrical relationships between South-east Asian deer (Cervidae, tribe Cervini): evolutionary and biogeographic implications. J. Zool. Lond. 263:179–196.
  • Miquelle, D. 1990. Why don't bull moose eat during the rut?. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 27/2: 145-151.
  • Molvar, E., R. Bowyer, V. van Ballenberghe. 1993. Moose herbivory, browse quality and nutrient cycling in an Alaskan tree line community.. Oecologia, 94: 472-479.
  • Murray, D., E. Cox, W. Ballard, H. Whitlaw, M. Lenarz, T. Custer, T. Barnett, T. Fuller. 2006. Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population. Wildlife Monographs, 166: 1-30.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Ohtaishi, N. 1993. Deer of China: Biology and Management. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers.
  • Ohtaishi, N. and H. I. Sheng, eds. 1993. Deer of China. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.
  • Ohtaishi, N. and Y. Gao. 1990. A Review of the distribution of all species of deer (Tragulidae, Moschidae And Cervidae) in China. Mammal Review 20(2-3):125-144.
  • Pastor, J., B. Dewey, R. Naiman, P. McInnis, Y. Cohen. 1993. Moose browsing and soil fertility in the boreal forests of Isle Royale National Park. Ecology, 74: 467-480.
  • Post, E., M. Forchhammer. 2008. Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363: 2367-2373.
  • Putnam, R. 1989. The Natural History of Deer. United Kingdom: Cornell University Press.
  • Randi, E., N. Mucci, M. Pierpaoli, and E. Douzery. 1998. New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 265:793-801.
  • Risenhoover, K., S. Maass. 1987. The influence of moose on the composition and structure of Isle Royale forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Resources, 17: 357-364.
  • Scott, J. 1988. The Great Migration. London: Elm Tree Books.
  • Scott, K. M. and C. M. Janis. 1987. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cervidae and the case for a superfamily "Cervoidea". Pages 3-20 in Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
  • Toigo C, C., J. Gaillard. d. 2003. Causes of sex-biased adult survival in ungulates : sexual size dimorphism , mating tactic or environment harshness. Oikos, Oikos: 376-384.
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  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142

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