The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Gentry, A. W. and J. J. Hooker. 1988. The phylogeny of the Artiodactyla. Pages 235-272 in The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 2. Mammals. M. J. P. Benton, ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
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  • Kostia, S., M. Ruohonen-Lehto, R. Vainola, and S.-L. Varvio. 2000. Phylogenetic information in inter-SINE and interSSR fingerprints of the Artiodactyla and evolution of the Bov-tA SINE. Heredity 84:37-45.
  • Langer, P. 2001. Evidence from the digestive tract on phylogenetic relationships in ungulates and whales. Journal of Zoology, Systematics, Evolution and Research 39:77-90.
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  • Montgelard, C., F. M. Catzeflis, and E. Douzery. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14:550-559.
  • Montgelard, C., S. Ducrocq, and E. Douzery. 1998. What is a Suiforme (Artiodactyla)? Contribution of cranioskeletal and mitochondrial DNA data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9:528-532.
  • Naylor, G. J. P. and D. C. Adams. 2001. Are the fossil data really at odds with the molecular data? Morphological evidence for Cetartiodactyla phylogeny reexamined. Systematic Biology, 50:444-453.
  • Nikaido, M., A. P. Rooney, and N. Okada. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: Hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:10261-10266.
  • Nowak, R.M. 1999. Order Artiodactyla. Pages 1051-1238 in: Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth Edition. Volume II. (R. M. Nowak). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
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  • Price, S. A., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, and J. L. Gittleman. 2005. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biological Reviews 80(3):445 - 473.
  • Prothero, D. R. and R. M. Schoch. 2002. Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: the Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Pérez-Barbería, F. J. and I. J. Gordon. 1999. The functional relationship between feeding type and jaw and cranial morphology in ungulates. Oecologia 118:157-165.
  • Pérez-Barbería, F. J. and I. J. Gordon. 2000. Differences in body mass and oral morphology between the sexes in the Artiodactyla: evolutionary relationships with sexual segregation. Evolutionary Ecology Research 2:667-684.
  • Pérez-Barbería, F. J., I. J. Gordon, and C. Nores. 2001. Evolutionary transitions among feeding styles and habitats in ungulates. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3:221-230.
  • R. Owen. 1848. Description of teeth and portions of jaws of two extinct Anthracotherioid quadrupeds (Hyopotamus vectianus and Hyop. bovinus) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the NW coast of the Isle of Wight: with an attempt to develope Cuvier's idea of the Classification of Pachyderms by the number of their toes. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 4:103-141
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  • Shedlock, A. M., M. C. Milinkovitch, and N. Okada. 2000. SINE evolution, missing data, and the origin of whales. Systematic Biology, 49:808-816.
  • Shimamura, M., H. Yasue, K. Ohshima, H. Abe, H. Kato, T. Kishiro, M. Goto, I. Munechika, and N. Okada. 1997. Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates. Nature 388:666-670.
  • Simpson, George Gaylord. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 85. xvi + 350
  • Stoner, C. J., T. M. Caro, and C. M. Graham. 2003. Ecological and behavioral correlates of coloration in artiodactyls: systematic analyses of conventional hypotheses. Behavioral Ecology 14(6):823-840.
  • Theodor, J. M. 2004. Molecular clock divergence estimates and the fossil record of Cetartiodactyla. Journal of Paleontology 78(1):39-44.
  • Thewissen, J. G. M. and S. I. Madar. 1999. Ankle morphology of the earliest cetaceans and its implications for the phylogenetic relations among ungulates. Systematic Biology 48:21-30.
  • Ursing, B. M. and U. Arnason. 1998. Analyses of mitochondrial genomes strongly support a hippopotamus-whale clade. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 265:2251-2255.
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