The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cheah, C., M. E. Montgomery, S. Salom, B. L. Parker, S. Costa, and M. Skinner, 2004. Biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid. USDA For. Serv. FHTET-2004-04, Reardon, R. and B. Onken (Tech. Coordinators), 22pp.
  • Ellison, A. M., M. S. Bank, B. D. Clinton, E. A. Colburn, K. Elliott, C. R. Ford, D. R. Foster, B. D. Kloeppel, J. D. Knoepp, G. M. Lovett, J. Mohan, D. A. Orwig, N. L. Rodenhouse, W. V. Sobczak, K. A. Stinson, J. K. Stone, C. M. Swan, J. Thompson, B. V. Holle, and J. R. Webster. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:479-486.
  • Favret C. (2013). AphidSF: Aphid Species File (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Havill, N. P., M. E. Montgomery, G. Yu, S. Shiyake, and A. Caccone. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests cryptic speciation and pinpoints the source of the introduction to eastern North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99:195-203.
  • McClure, M.S. 1990. Role of wind, birds, deer, and humans in the dispersal of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(1) 36-43.
  • McClure, M.S. 1995. Biology of Adelges tsugae and its potential for spread in the Northeastern United States. Pages 16-25 in Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET 96-10. Charlottesville, VA.
  • McClure, M.S. 2007. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand). Connecticut Agricultural Research Station. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from
  • McClure, M.S., S.M. Salom, and K.S. Shields. 2001. Hemlock woolly adelgid. FHTET-2001-03. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team; 14 p.
  • National Park Service, 2011. Hemlock Woolley adelgid. Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from
  • Orwig, D. A. and D. Kittredge. 2005. Silvicultural options for managing hemlock forests threatened by hemlock woolly adelgid. Harvard Forest Fact Sheet.
  • Paradis, A., J. Elkinton, K. Hayhoe, and J. Buonaccorsi. 2008. Role of winter temperature and climate change on the survival and future range expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in eastern North America. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13:541-554.
  • Souto, D., T. Luther, and B. Chianese. 1995. Past and current status of HWA in eastern and Carolina hemlock stands. Pages 9-15 in Proceedings of the First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET 96-10. Charlottesville, VA. source or sink in the Great Lakes.

  • United States Department of Agriculture, September 22, 2011 National Invasive Species Information Center. Species Profiles, Hemlock woolly adelgid. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 May, 2011. “Hemlock woolly adelgid”. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from


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