The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Chorn, J., R. Hoffman. 1978. Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Mammalian Species, 110: 1-6.
  • Christiansen, P. 2007. Evolutionary implications of bite mechanics and feeding ecology in bears. Journal of Zoology 272(4):423-443.
  • Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, 2005. "CITES Appendices I, II, and III" (On-line). Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. Accessed July 13, 2005 at
  • DeMaster, D., I. Stirling. 1981. Ursus maritimus. Mammalian Species, 145: 1-7.
  • Decker, D., W. Wozencraft. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of Recent procyonid genera. Journal of Mammalogy, 72: 42-55.
  • Erdbrinck, D. 1953. A review of fossil and Recent bears of the old world. Utrecht, Germany: Proefschrift.
  • Fitzgerald, C., P. Krausman. 2002. Helarctos malayanus. Mammalian Species, 696: 1-5.
  • Flynn, J., J. Finarelli, S. Zehr, J. Hsu, M. Nedbal. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): Assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships. Systematic Biology, 54: 317-337.
  • Flynn, J., N. Neff, R. Tedford. 1988. Phylogeny of the Carnivora. Pp. 73-116 in M Benton, ed. The Phylogeny and Classification of Tetrapods, Vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Goldman, D., R. Giri, S. O'Brien. 1989. Molecular genetic-distance estimates among the Ursidae as indicated by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis. Evolution, 43: 282-295.
  • Hendey, Q. 1980. Origin of the giant panda. South African Journal of Science, 76: 179-180.
  • IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2004. "The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Accessed July 13, 2005 at
  • Krause, J, Unger, T, Nocon, A, Malaspinas, AS, Kolokotronis, SO, Stiller, M, Soibelzon, L, Spriggs, H, Dear, PH, Briggs, AW, Bray, SCE, O'Brien, SJ, Rabeder, G, Matheus, P, Cooper, A, Slatkin, M, Paabo, S, Hofreiter, M. 2008. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:220.
  • Kurten, B., E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Lariviere, S. 2001. Ursus americanus. Mammalian Species, 647: 1-11.
  • Lawlor, T. 1979. Handbook to the Orders and Families of Living Mammals. Eureka, California: Mad River Press.
  • McKenna, M., S. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Nakagome, S, Pecon-Slattery, J, Masuda, R. 2008. Unequal rates of Y chromosome gene divergence during speciation of the family Ursidae. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 (7): 1344-1356.
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fifth Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • O'Brien, S., W. Nash, D. Wildt, M. Bush, R. Benveniste. 1985. A molecular solution to the riddle of the giant panda's phylogeny. Nature, 317: 140-144.
  • Pages, M, Calvignac, S, Klein, C, Paris, M, Hughes, S, Hanni, C. 2008. Combined analysis of fourteen nuclear genes refines the Ursidae phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (1): 73-83.
  • Pasitchniak-Arts, M. 1993. Ursus arctos. Mammalian Species, 439: 1-10.
  • Rice, Dale W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals, no. 4. ix + 231
  • Roberts, M., J. Gittleman. 1984. Ailurus fulgens. Mammalian Species, 222: 1-8.
  • Rogers, L. 1999. American black bear. Pp. 157-160 in D Wilson, S Ruff, eds. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Shields, G., T. Kocher. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships of North American ursids based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Evolution, 45: 218-221.
  • Simpson, G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 85: 1-350.
  • Talbot SL, Shields, GF. 1996. A phylogeny of the bears (ursidae) inferred from complete sequences of three mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:567-575.
  • Todd, N., S. Pressman. 1968. The karyotype of the lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) and general remarks on the phylogeny and affinities of the panda. Carnivore Genetics Newsletter, 5: 105-108.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program" (On-line). Accessed July 13, 2005 at
  • Van Gelder, R. 1977. Mammalian hybrids and generic limits. American Museum Novitates, 2635: 1-25.
  • Vaughan, T., J. Ryan, N. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy, 4th edition. New York: Saunders College Publishing.
  • Waits, LP, Sullivan, J, O'Brien, SJ, Ward, RH. 1999. Rapid radiation events in the family Ursidae indicated by likelihood phylogenetic estimation from multiple fragments of mtDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13(1):82-92.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wozencraft, W. 1989. The phylogeny of the Recent Carnivora. Pp. 495-535 in J Gittleman, ed. Carnivores: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
  • Wozencraft, W. 1993. Order Carnivora. Pp. 279-348 in D Wilson, D Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World, Vol. 2nd edition. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Yu, L, Li, YW, Ryder, OA, Zhang, Y-P. 2007. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:198.
  • Yu, L, Li, YW, Ryder, OA,Zhang, Y-P. 2007. 2004. Phylogeny of the bears (Ursidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(2):480-494.
  • Zhang YP, Ryder OA. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of bears (the ursidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 3:351-359.


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