The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Bush KL, Strobeck C. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of the phasianidae reveals possible non-pheasant taxa. J. Hered. 94:472-89.
  • Campbell, B., E. Lack. 1985. A Dictionary of Birds. Vermilion: Buteo Books.
  • Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CISRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC, Australia.
  • Collar, N., M. Crosby, A. Stattersfield. 1994. Birds to Watch 2, The World List of Threatened Birds. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Crowe, T.M., Bowie, R.C.K., Bloomer, P., Mandiwana, T.G., Hedderson, T.A.J., Randi, E., Pereira, S.L. and Wakeling, J. 2006. Phylogenetics, biogeography and classification of, and characteristic evolution in, gamesbirds (Aves:Galliformes):effects of character exclusio, data partitioning and missing data. Cladistics 22: 495-532.
  • Delacour, J. 1977. The pheasants of the world. Second edition. Spur Publications and World Pheasant Association, Reading, UK.
  • Dickinson, Edward C., ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd edition. 1039
  • Dickson, J. 1992. The Wild Turkey: biology and management. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
  • Dimcheff, D. D., S. V. Drovetski, and D. P. Mindell. 2002. Molecular evolution and systematics of Tetraoninae and other Galliformes using mitochondrial 12S and ND2 genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24: 203-215.
  • Dimcheff, D. E., S. V. Drovetski, M. Krishnan, and D. P. Mindell. 2000. Cospeciation and horizontal transmission of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag genes in galliform birds. J. Virology 74:3984-3995.
  • Drovetski, S.V. 2002. Molecular Phylogeny of Grouse: The performance of W-linked, autosomal, and mitochondrial loci, Syst. Biol. 51:930–945.
  • Dyke, G., B. Gulas, T. Crowe. 2003. Suprageneric relationships of galliform birds (Aves, Galliformes): a cladistic analysis of morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 137: , 227-244.
  • Ellsworth, D. L., R. L. Honeycutt, and N. J. Silvy. (1996). Systematics of grouse and ptarmigan determined by nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-B gene. The Auk, 113:811-822.
  • Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Gutierrez, R.J., Barrowclough, G.F., and Groth, J.G. 2000. A classification of the grouse (Aves: Tetraoninae) based on mitochodrial DNA sequences. Wildlife Biol. 6:205–211.
  • Haaramo, M. 2004. "Mikko's Phylogeny Archives" (On-line). Field Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, Finland. Accessed May 03, 2007 at
  • I. K. Sharma, A study of ecosystems of the Indian desert, Trans. Indian Soc. Desert Technol. and Univ. Center Desert Stud. 5(2):51-55, from p. 52 and A study of agro-ecosystems in the Indian desert, ibid. 5:77-82, from p. 79 1980).
  • IUCN, 2007. "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed May 03, 2007 at
  • Johnsgard, P. 1983. The Grouse of the World. Lincoln, NE: Univeristy of Nebraska Press.
  • Johnsgard, P. 1999. The Pheasants of the World Biology and Natural History. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Livezey, B., R. Zusi. 2001. Higher-order phylogenetics of modern Aves based on comparative anatomy. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 51(2): 179-205.
  • Madge, S., N. Arlott, and P. J. K. McGowan. 2000. Pheasants, Partidges, Grouse and Sandgrouse. London: Christopher Helm.
  • Madge, S., P. McGowan. 2002. Pheasants, Partridges and Grouse: A Guide to the Pheasants, Partridges, Quails, Grouse, Guineafowl, Buttonquails and Sandgrouse of the World. London: Christopher Helm.
  • McGowan, P.J.K. 1994. Phasianidae (Pheasants and Partridges). Pages 434-552 in Handbook of the Birds of the World. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Sibley, B., C. Monroe. 1993. A World Checklist of Birds. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers Inc..
  • Sibley, C., J. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and Classification of Birds, A Study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Sorenson, M., E. O'Neal, J. Garcia-Moreno, D. Mindell. 2003. More taxa, more characters: the Hoatzin problem is still unresolved. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20(9): 1484-1499.
  • W. A. Niering, Terrestrial ecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands, Ecol. Monogr. 33(2):131-160, from p. 157 (1963).


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