Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:302Public Records:42
Specimens with Sequences:175Public Species:18
Specimens with Barcodes:171Public BINs:18
Species:57         
Species With Barcodes:48         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Estrildidae

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Wikipedia

Estrildid finch

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They can be classified as the family Estrildidae (weaver-finch), or as a subfamily within the family Passeridae, which strictly defined comprises the Old World sparrows.[1]

They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short, thick, but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but vary widely in plumage colours and patterns.

All the estrildids build large, domed nests and lay 5–10 white eggs. Many species build roost nests. Some of the fire-finches and pytilias are hosts to the brood-parasitic indigobirds and whydahs, respectively.

Most are sensitive to cold and require warm, usually tropical, habitats, although a few have adapted to the cooler climates of southern Australia.

The smallest species of the family is the Shelley's Oliveback (Nesocharis shelleyi) at a mere 8.3 centimetres (3.3 in), although the lightest species is the Black-rumped Waxbill (Estrilda troglodytes) at 6 g (0.21 oz). The largest species is the Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora), at 17 cm (6.7 in) and 25 g (0.88 oz).

Species list[edit]

Evolution[edit]

Origin of estrildid finches

The phylogeography and possible origin of estrildid finches have been studied. The following scheme may be useful to represent an hypothetical origin in India in the last and stronger Himalayas uplift (16.5 million years ago), when monsoon rains regime established in India (see figure). The conclusions from this study[2][3] are:

  • Estrildids are a monophyletic group with polytomies that may have started evolving by Middle Miocene Epoch (about 16.5 million years ago)
  • This proposed timing is coincidental with the Fringillinae finches’ radiation starting time and also with the biggest Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau uplift, triggered by the Indian tectonic plate strongest collision; this established present day southern Asia monsoon regime and other drastic climatic changes, like a dryer weather in Tibetan Plateau and Chinese deserts.
  • The estrildid finches form a monophyletic group which includes several polytomies and comprises African, Asian and Australian birds.
  • The most ancient evolutive group comprises African (African silverbill), Asian (Indian silverbill) and Australian (diamond firetail); this suggests that the whole Estrildids radiation might have originated around India.[2][4][5]
Estrildid finches' phylogenetic tree

References[edit]

  1. ^ Christidis L, Boles WE (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6. 
  2. ^ a b c Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle, V.; Gomez-Prieto, P.; Reguera, R.; Parga-Lozano, C; Serrano-Vela, J.I. (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study"(PDF). The Open Ornithology Journal 2: 29-36. (doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029).
  3. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Gómez-Prieto P; Ruiz-de-Valle V (2009). "Phylogeography of finches and sparrows". Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 9781607418443. 
  4. ^ Sibley CG, Monroe BL (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press
  5. ^ a b Arnaiz-Villena, A; Gomez-Prieto, P.; Serna-Ayala; Ruiz-del-Valle, V. (2009). "Origen de los estríldidos".
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