Overview

Brief Summary

Diversity

Diversity description:

Adelidae is a widely distributed family of nearly 300 species that occur on all continents except Antartica and are absent from New  Zealand.Two subfamilies have been proposed (Küppers 1980):  Adelinae (maxillary palpi 2-3-segmented; male valvae without pectinifers);including Adela,Cauchas, and Nemophora.  Nematopogoninae (maxillary palpi usually 4-5-segmented; male valvae usually with pectinifers); including Ceromitia and Nematopogon.

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Distribution

Geographical Distribution

Geographic Range:

Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical, Australian, Oceanic Island

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Physical Description

Morphology

Egg morphology

Orientation:

flat

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Larvae Morphology

Larval head description:

Head mostly prognathous with 6 pairs of stemmata; AF2 absent; adfrontal sclerite elongate, extending to deeply incised epicranial notch.

Secondary setae:

absent

Body setae on verrucae:

absent

Body setae on chalazae:

absent

Body setae on scoli:

absent

Larval body description:

Body slightly depressed, white to green with darkly pigmented plates and head; 7-12 mm in length.

Spinneret:

present

Larval thorax description:

Thorax with prespiracular sclerite fused to pronotum; spiracle usually free from prespiracular sclerite. Coxal plates fused, at least on prothorax. Legs well developed; tarsi without enlarged, squamiform seta.

Thoracic glands:

absent

Thoracic legs:

present

Larval abdomen description:

Prolegs greatly reduced  on segments 3-6, absent on last segment (10).

Abdominal glands:

absent

Abdominal prolegs:

present

Proleg configuration:

reduced

Proleg size:

vestigial

Crochets:

multiserial, in transverse rows

Crochet arrangement description:

Crochets arranged in several more or less definite transverse rows that gradually decrease in size from center.

Anal comb on A10:

absent

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Pupa/Cocoon morphology

Pupa type:

adecticous

Pupa description:

Length 5-7 mm. Vertex smoothly rounded. Antennae usually surpassing abdomen, then loosely encircling caudal end of abdomen 1-4 times. Abdomen with 1-2 rows of dorsal spines on most segments; segments 3-7  movable (Common 1990). Pupation inside larval case with the pupal exuvium partially extruded.

Pupal tergal spines:

present

Spines as modified cremaster:

absent

Cremaster:

present

Cocoon:

present

Cocoon description:

The larval case also serves as a cocoon.

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Adult Abdomen Morphology

Reproductive system:

Ditrysian

Oviscapt (ovipositor):

piercing

Female genitalia description:

Oviscapt with a compressed, acute apex usually minutely serrated along ventral keel. Spermatheca without lateral lagena. Ductus and corpus bursae membranous, without spines or signa.

Female corethrogyne:

absent

Female pregenital sexual scales:

absent

Female oviduct opening:

in cloaca

Male coremata:

absent

Male pregenital sexual scales:

absent

Male genitalia description:

Uncus reduced, often bilobed; tegumen a moderate to narrow, dorsal band. Vinculum well developed with an elongate, broad to slender, V- to Y-shaped saccus. Valvae with 0-3 pairs of either sessile or pedunculate pectinifers; pectinifers absent in Adela, Cauchus, Nemophora, and some subgenera of Ceromitia. Juxta slender, sagittate.  Aedoeagus an elongate tube; cornuti usually present. apex sometimes also armed with large, exogenous spines.

Sternum 5:

without fenestra

Sternum 5 gland:

absent

Adult abdomen description:

Anterior third of sternum 2 with a slender, U-shaped caudal rim; sternum 7 of female triangular to subrectangular, caudal margin  rounded to slightly emarginate.

Male has:

phallotheca and aedeagus (phallus)

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Adult Thorax Morphology

Scale tufts:

absent

Epiphysis:

present

Adult thorax description:

Laterocervical sclerites with slender, elongate. lateral processes. Metafurca with dorsal apophyses well developed, arising perpendicular  from mesa1 lamella free from secondary arms of metafurcasternum.

Forelegs:

normal

Leg description:

Legs with tibial spur pattern of 0-2-4.

Forewing length from base of forewing to the apex (mm):

from 3.5 to 12

Wing venation??description:

Forewing radius with 5 branches, Rs2 and 3 either separate, connate or stalked; Rs4 usually to costa in most genera. ter-  minating on termen below apex in Nematopogon; accessory cell present; base of M faint, rarely forked within cell; 1A + 2A with short basal  fork; S retinaculum a long costal fold extending under base of Sc. Hindwing M1 and 2 either separate or stalked; 1A + 2A with short basal fork.

Wing venation:

heteroneurous

Forewing cell veins:

forked, unforked

Forewing anal vein notation:

1A+2A

Forewing basal loop:

present

Forewing pterostigma:

absent

Forewing chorda:

present

Forewing upper surface with microtrichia:

present

Hindwing cell vein:

forked

Hindwing pterostigma:

absent

Wing coupling:

present, with frenulum

Wing scales:

hollow

Forewing description:

Forewings slender, W/L ratio 0.3-0.37; microtrichia usually pre-  sent, reduced in some genera.

Hindwing description:

Hindwings similar to forewings in width, W/L ratio usually 0.35. Male frenulum a single stout bristle, usually accompanied by several smaller setae along costal margin; female frenulum consisting of 3-4 smaller bristles in a row along base of costa.

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Tympanum Morphology

Counter-tympanum:

absent

Abdomen tympanum:

absent

Thorax tympanum:

absent

Palp tympanum:

absent

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Adult Head Morphology

Ocelli:

absent

Eyes:

smooth

Labial palpus:

upcurved

Labial palpus modification:

Labial palpus variable in length, segments II and III usually rough and clothed with long, piliform scales.

Maxillary palpus:

present

Proboscis:

present

Proboscis texture:

scaled

Proboscis description:

Proboscis usually elongate, 1.5-2.5X the length of labial  palpus; reduced, about equal to labial palpus in  some African Ceromitia; basal 1/4 - 1/3 scaled.

Mandibles:

reduced

Head vertex scaling:

very rough

Female antennae:

filiform

Male antennae:

filiform

Male scape description:

Scape sometimes slightly swollen in male.

Antennal sensillum:

Antennal sensillum present

Sensillum vesiculocladum:

absent

Asciod sensilla:

absent

General antennae description:

Antennae usually longer than forewing in both sexes; up to  3X length of forewing and arising nearly contiguous in males;  antennae shorter in genus Cauchas, 0.5- 1.2X the length  of forewing in both sexes; pecten usually present, ab-  sent in Cauchas; flagellum filiform, usually fully  scaled to apex with two annuli of appressed  scales per segment, more thinly scaled ventrally;  basal 0.2-0.6 of antenna roughly scaled in some  Adela. Males of some Adela and all Nemophora with  variable number of enlarged mediodorsal spines along base of flagellum.

Adult head description:

Vertex rough, densely covered with piliform scales: frons usually rough, occasionally covered by smooth, broad scales. Eyes small to  large, interocular index 0.5-1.7; interfacetal microsetae scattered; eyes dimorphic in most Adela and Nemophora with that of males enlarged, more approximate at vertex, and usually with facets in upper 2/3 of eye enlarged. Maxillary palpi 2-5-segmented.

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic Characters

Other diagnostic characters:

Proboscis elongate (paralled in some Prodoxidae).  Apex of oviscapt compressed (laterally flattened) - also present in many Prodoxidae.

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Synapomorphies

Apomorphies:

Elongate antenna (particularly in the male), usually longer than forewings in both sexes..  Lateral processes of the lateral cervical sclerite (laterocervicale) slender..  High number of ovarioles per ovary (10-20), (Nielsen, 1980, Nielsen and Davis, 1985).  Proboscis with scales

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Larval Behavior

Larval behavior:

Largely because of the secretive and sometimes omnivorous feeding habits of the larva, surprisingly little is known about the biology of most species in this relatively well known family of moths. Eggs  are inserted into plant tissue in which the larva may or may not feed (Heath and Pelham-Clinton 1976, Nielsen 1985). According to Chretien  (1894), during late spring and early summer the eggs of Nematopogon metaxella are inserted into any convenient herbaceous plant. Upon hatching, the larva immediately drops to the ground where it constructs a flattened, oval case from soil particles and eventually dead leaves (Chretien 1894). The larva feeds on both living and  dead plants and does not complete its development until the following spring. Kuroko (1961)reports a somewhat different life history for  Nemophora raddei that may more accurately reflect the univoltine norm for the family. In this species the eggs are inserted into the ovaries of Salix sieboldiana in spring. The first instar larva  feeds on the ovules as well as the ovary wall. After moulting, it constructs a small, oval case and descends on a silken thread to the ground where it prefers to feed on dead leaves of the host Salix and Castanea crenata. The mature larva (6th instar) pupates near the end of October, with the adult emerging the following spring. The eggs of most Adela are inserted into the flower ovary of their host wherein the first instar larvae feed on the developing seeds. From the second instar on, the larvae become casebearers and feed on the lower or fallen leaves of their host (Heath and Pelham-Clinton 1976). First  instar larvae of some Adelidae may mine leaves (Common 1990). Over 20 families of angiosperms and one gymnosperm (Pinaceae) have  been reported as hosts (Küppers 1980).

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Adult Behavior

Adult behavior:

diurnal

Adult behavior:

In contrast to most Nematopogoninae which tend to be drab in color and crepuscular or nocturnal, the adults of Adelinae are often metallic and predominantly diurnal. The males of many species of Adela and Nemophora swarm, usually near the species' host plant or oviposition site. The enlarged compound eyes in these males are  an adaptation for swarming (McAlpine and Munroe 1968, Downes 1969). The development of specialized, spinose setae and scales near the  base of the antennae of swarming males may be further adaptations associated with this courtship behavior (Nielsen 1980), possibly for use in sound production or visual signaling (Bland 1977).

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Reproduction

Life History: Immature Stages

Description of egg life history:

Poorly known; inserted singly into plant tissue.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Systematic and taxonomic history

Systematic and taxonomic history:

In a phylogeny for the Incurvarioidea proposed by Nielsen and Davis (1985), the Adelidae was placed near the base of the superfamily, distinguished in part from the most basal taxon, Heliozelidae, by the loss of the lateral lagena on the spermatheca. Some mtDNA sequence data also links the problematic North American genus Tridentaforma to this family (Brown et al. 1994). The lateral cervical sclerites of Tridentaforma, however, differ from the typical adelid form.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:840Public Records:95
Specimens with Sequences:733Public Species:21
Specimens with Barcodes:610Public BINs:19
Species:84         
Species With Barcodes:68         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Adelidae

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Wikipedia

Adelidae

The Adelidae or fairy longhorn moths are a family of monotrysian moths in the lepidopteran infraorder Heteroneura. Most species have at least partially metallic patterns coloration and are diurnal, sometimes swarming around the tips of branches with an undulating flight. Others are crepuscular and have a drab coloration. Fairy longhorn moths have a wingspan of 4-28 millimeters, and males often have especially long antennae, 1-3 times as long as the forewing.

They are widespread across the world and can be found over much of North America and Eurasia from April to June. About 50 species occur in Europe, of which most widely noted is the Green Longhorn (Adela reaumurella) which can sometimes reach great abundance; due to climate change[2] its peak flying season is shifting towards spring. In general, they are more plentiful in the Northern Hemisphere, but the family occurs in the Neotropics, sub-Saharan Africa, South-East Asia and Australia too.[3]

Adelidae are usually closely restricted to particular hostplants [1], in which the females insert their eggs or just lay among leaf litter, and the caterpillars make a case, completing their development on the ground. Fairy longhorn moths feed in sunshine on nectar from the flowers of herbaceous (woody) plants.

Systematics[edit]

Fairy longhorn moths belong to the superfamily Incurvarioidea, one of the basal ("monotrysian") branches of the advanced moth infraorder Heteroneura. By Lepidopteran standards, they are thus still rather primitive micromoths. But like other Heteroneura, they already possess the apomorphic sucking proboscis – usually considered a defining feature of Lepidoptera, but actually the most ancestral moths still live on solid food which they chew.[4]

The Adelidae were previously placed as the subfamily Adelinae within the family Incurvariidae.[5]

Subfamilies[edit]

The Adelidae are usually divided into 2 subfamilies, but most genera are actually of uncertain or basal relationships. Selected species are also listed:[6]

The genus Tridentaforma is sometimes placed among the Adelidae incertae sedis too; others assign it to the closely related Prodoxidae.[4]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness - Lepidoptera
  2. ^ Kuchlein & Ellis (2004)
  3. ^ Edwards (2007), FE (2009)
  4. ^ a b Davis (1999)
  5. ^ Bradley, J.D.; Fletcher, D.S. (1979). A Recorder's Log Book or Label List of British Butterflies and Moths. London: Curwen Boooks. 
  6. ^ Wikispecies (2008-OCT-31), FE (2009), and see references in Savela (2003)

References[edit]

  • Davis, D.R. (1999): The Monotrysian Heteroneura. In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.): Handbuch der Zoologie/Handbook of Zoology (Volume IV – Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35: Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies 1): 65-90. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York. ISBN 3-11-015704-7
  • Edwards, E.D. (2007): Australian Faunal Directory – Adelidae. Version of 2007-JUN-28. Retrieved 2010-MAY-09.
  • Fauna Europaea (FE) (2009): Adelidae. Version 2.1, 2009-DEC-22. Retrieved 2010-MAY-03.
  • Kuchlein, J.H. & Ellis, W.N. (2004): Climate-induced changes in the microlepidoptera fauna of the Netherlands and the implications for nature conservation. Journal of Insect Conservation 1(2): 73-80. doi:10.1023/A:1018483026265 PDF fulltext
  • Savela, Markku (2003): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Adelidae. Version of 2003-DEC-27. Retrieved 2010-MAY-03.
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