Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Ochotona hoffmanni occurs in a restricted geographic range (Hoffmann and Smith 2005). It occupies the subalpine regions of the Hentiyn Nuruu ridge of the Bayan-Ulan range in Mongolia, as well as the Erman Mountain range of the Russian Federation (Formozov et al. 1996; Formozov and Baklushinskaya 1999). The total extent of occurrence is approximately 600 sq. km (Formozov pers. comm.)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The preferred habitat of Ochotona hoffmanni is rock and talus.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ochotona hoffmanni

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H.

Reviewer/s
Boyer, A.F. & Johnston, C.H. (Lagomorph Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Ochotona hoffmanni occupies a restricted distribution (Hoffmann and Smith 2005). The estimated extent of occurrence for O. hoffmanni is 600 sq. km (Formozov pers. comm.). It is also known from only two locations. Based on this information O. hoffmanni qualifies for listing as Endangered. Formozov who discovered and evaluated the species determined that O. hoffmanni met the IUCN Red List Criterion D2 (Formozov pers. comm.), but that no longer applies witht the Endnagered listing.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
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Population

Population
There are no data regarding the current population status of this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by rising global temperatures. As a rock dwelling species, Ochotona hoffmanni is unable to disperse to more suitable habitat due to the intolerable ambient temperatures of connecting terrain.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures in place for Ochotona hoffmanni. There are very little data concerning the habitat, ecology, status of the population and its habitat. Research in these areas is recommended.
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Wikipedia

Hoffmann's pika

Ochotona alpina ssp. nova

Hoffmann's pika (Ochotona hoffmanni) is a species of mammal in the pika family, Ochotonidae, that is endemic to Mongolia. It is currently listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[2]

Etymology[edit]

The word “pika” was first coined by the Tungus of Siberia to describe the calls pikas use to communicate with each other. The genus name of Hoffmann’s pika, Ochotona, was inspired by “ogdai,” the term Mongolians use to refer to pikas.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

Hoffmann’s pika is a member of the kingdom Animalia, the phylum Chordata, the class Mammalia, the order Lagomorpha, and the family Ochotonidae.[4] It shares its family (Ochotonidae) with all other pikas, and the family Ochotonidae represents about a third of the diversity of the order Lagomorpha (which also includes hares and rabbits). The genus Ochotona is the sole extant genus of the family Ochotonidae, with the other extinct genera in Ochotonidae dating as far back as the Eocene.[5]

Physical Description[edit]

Hoffmann's pika, like other pika species, is a small furry animal (between 125 and 130 mm in length, and 70 to 300 g in weight) with short round ears, which do not move readily, and short limbs, which give it an egg-like appearance.[6] Newborn Hoffmann's pikas are helpless and naked or slightly furred.[7] Its nostrils can be completely closed, and it has an extremely short tail, which is hardly visible.[6] The two front paws have five digits and the back paws have four, which all have curved claws and are covered by long hair, leaving only the digit pads exposed.[8] When completing quick movements (such as running) they are considered digitigrade, and are considered plantigrade during slow movements. They have a high metabolic rate and are considered endothermic. Males and females are about the same size and are difficult to tell apart.[9]

Behavior[edit]

Social Behavior[edit]

Unlike Alpine pikas, which live in a family group, Hoffmann’s pikas are typically asocial.[10] They rarely interact, unless they are in pairs. These pairs will claim territory together and share a hay-storage, which they store together. They are very territorial of their claimed talus, or sloping rock formation, especially against those of the same sex.[11] Both of the sexes claim their talus using scent-markings and vocalizations. While they can defend territories in pairs, males are more known to defend their territory from intruders than females.[12]

Feeding Behavior[edit]

Hoffmann’s pikas are similar in feeding behavior to other Asian pikas, especially the Alpine pikas.[13] Hoffmann’s pikas collect vegetation by ripping plants out of the ground with their mouths and bringing it back to their claimed territory. This behavior is known as haying. This practice allows them to save food during periods of sparse vegetation. However, Hoffmann’s pikas can over-harvest, which can cause them to run out of food.

Diet[edit]

Hoffmann’s pikas, like other pikas, are herbivores that consume a wide variety of vegetation, such as leaves, seeds and leaves of grasses, and stems of forbs and shrubs. They may even eat small quantities of animal matter. They choose plants for consumption based on availability, nutritional content, and preference. Hoffmann’s pikas do not continuously forage for a single source of vegetation; they alternate among available sources of foliage, resulting in a stabilized plant community composition and an overall deceleration of the process of succession. Similar to other pikas, Hoffmann’s pikas store vegetation in haypiles for consumption during the winter months.[14]

Reproduction[edit]

In general, pikas breed twice a year, in the spring and in the summer, and many species will have two or more litters per year.[15] Rock dwelling pikas, such as Hoffmann's pika, have a gestation period of 30 days.[16] Embryo resorption may occur if the pika encounters adverse conditions.[17] Young rock dwelling pikas, such as Hoffmann's pika, will first breed as yearlings. In general, it appears that Hoffmann's pikas are monogamous[16][18] Pikas have scent glands, as do all lagomorphs.[17]

Female reproductive tract[edit]

The uterus is duplex. The placenta is discoid, deciduate, and hemochorial, with a mesometrial, superficial implantation.[19]

Male reproductive tract[edit]

The testes are intra-abdominal outside the breeding season.[15][19] During the breeding season they are found in folds of skin at the base of the penis (for all lagomorphs species, the testes are in front of the penis).[15] Similar to other Lagomorphs, Hoffmann's pika does not have a baculum.[15]

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Hoffmann's pikas are found in Mongolia.[20] Some reports state that they have also been found in the southeast area of Russia.[21]

Habitat[edit]

The preferred habitat of Hoffmann's pika is rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks).[22] Hoffmann's pika is one kind of rock-dwelling pika, which nest among rocks or fallen logs.[18] For other rock-dwelling pikas, the preferred habitat is rock and talus. Hoffmann's pika may be found in old moss-covered scree or in burrows under tree roots.[23]

Conservation and Decline[edit]

The primary threat to this species is climate change, as pikas are very sensitive to temperature changes. Pikas can die within six hours after exposure to temperatures above 25.5 °C (77.9 °F).[24] The limited geographic range of Hoffmann's pika, only 600 km2, puts the species at a greater risk of extinction. While the IUCN lists Hoffmann's pika as an endangered species, there are currently no known conservation efforts underway, perhaps because the ecological consequences that would occur if Hoffmann's pika were to go extinct are not yet determined. The IUCN recommends more research to determine population size and other basic data about the species, which is unavailable at present.[1]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. (2008). Ochotona hoffmanni. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 10 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of endangered.
  2. ^ "Assessment Information". The IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  3. ^ "Alternative Names (Synonyms)". Wildpro. Wildlife Information Network (a branch of East Midland Zoological Society). Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  4. ^ "Ochotona hoffmanni". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  5. ^ Reese, Aspen. "Diversity". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  6. ^ a b Macdonald, D., Oxford University Press Lagomorphs (2001) Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  7. ^ Reese, A. 2012. "Ochotonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed October 22, 2014 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ochotonidae/
  8. ^ R.M. Nowak. Walker’s Mammals of the World Sixth Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA (1999)
  9. ^ Reese, A. 2012. "Ochotonidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed October 22, 2014
  10. ^ Chapman, J.A.; Flux, J.E.C. (1990). Rabbits, Hares and Pikas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ISBN 2-8317-0019-1. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  11. ^ Macdonald, D. (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. pp. 712–713. 
  12. ^ Reese, Aspen. "Ochotonidae pikas". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  13. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference Third Edition (Third ed.). Baltimore, MD, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 185–211. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  14. ^ Reese, Aspen. "Food Habits". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  15. ^ a b c d R.M. Nowak(1999), Walker's Mammals of the World Sixth Edition, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.
  16. ^ a b Chapman, J.A. & Flux, J.E.C.(1990), Rabbits, Hares and Pikas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, p.14-p.60, ISBN 2-8317-0019-1.
  17. ^ a b Macdonald, D.(2001), The New Encyclopedia of Mammals, p.694-695, ISBN 0-19-8550823-9.
  18. ^ a b Macdonald, D.(2001), The New Encyclopedia of Mammals, p.712-713, ISBN 0-19-8550823-9.
  19. ^ a b Hayssen, V., van Tienhoven, A. & van Tienhoven, A. (1993), Adsell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction, ISBN 0-8014-1753-8.
  20. ^ The Animal Files, http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/rabbits_hares_pikas/hoffmanns_pika.html
  21. ^ The Distribution Map of Hoffmann's Pika on IUCN, http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=40800
  22. ^ Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Ochotona hoffmanni. In: IUCN 2014 . IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Http://www.iucnredlist.org
  23. ^ Joseph A. Chapman, John E.C. Flux (1990), Rabbits, Hares and Pikas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan p.21, ISBN 9782831700199
  24. ^ AT Smith (1974) "The Distribution and Dispersal of Pikas: Influences of Behavior and Climate". Ecology 55:1368–1376.
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