The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Cadena, C.D., A.M. Cuervo, and S.M. Lanyon. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the Red-bellied Grackle (Icteridae: Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Condor 106:664-670 .
  • Dickinson, Edward C., ed. 2003. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, 3rd Edition. 1039
  • Johnson, K.P. and S.M. Lanyon. 1999. Molecular systematics of the grackles and allies, and the effect of additional sequence (cyt b and nd2). Auk 116:759-768.
  • Klicka, J., K.P. Johnson, and S.M. Lanyon. 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: Constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117:321-336.
  • Lanyon, S.M. 1994. Polyphyly of the blackbird genus Agelaius and the importance of assumptions of monophyly in comparative studies. Evolution 48:679-693.
  • Lanyon, S.M. and K.E. Omland. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of the blackbirds (Icteridae): Five lineages revealed by cytochrome-b sequence data. Auk 116:629-639.
  • Lowther, P.E., R. Fraga, T.S. Schulenberg, and S.M. Lanyon. 2004. Nomenclatural solution for a polyphyletic Agelaius. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 124:171-177.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Omland, K.E., S.M. Lanyon, and S. Fritz. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of the New World Orioles (Icterus): The importance of dense taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:224-239.
  • Orians, G.H. 1985. Blackbirds of the Americas. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
  • Price, J. and S. M. Lanyon. 2004. Song and mtDNA identify congruent but novel affinities of the Green Oropendola Auk 121:224-229.
  • Price, J. and S. M. Lanyon. Patterns of song evolution and sexual selection in the oropendolas and caciques. Behavioral Ecology 15:485-497.
  • Price, J. and S. M. Lanyon. R2002. Reconstructing the evolution of complex bird song in the oropendolas. Evolution 56(7):1514-1529.
  • Price, J. and S.M. Lanyon. 2002. A robust phylogeny of the oropendolas: Polyphyly revealed by mitochondrial sequence data. Auk 119:335-348.


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