Overview

Brief Summary

There are more than 400 species of salamander. These animals have round bodies, four legs, and a long tail. They are the only amphibians that have a tail at all stages of life.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Reproduction

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Fine filaments absorb oxygen: newt
 

The external gills of newt tadpoles absorb oxygen from water using fine filaments with a large collective surface area.

   
  "The large surface area of fine filaments is used by the external gills of the newt tadpole…to absorb oxygen from the surrounding water." (Foy and Oxford Scientific Films 1982:25)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 1142
Specimens with Sequences: 1049
Specimens with Barcodes: 860
Species: 129
Species With Barcodes: 111
Public Records: 579
Public Species: 77
Public BINs: 84
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Salamandridae

The Salamandridae are a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts. Currently, 74 species (with more expected) have been identified in the Northern Hemisphere - Europe, Asia, the northern tip of Africa, and North America. Salamandrids are distinguished from other salamanders by the lack of rib or costal grooves along the sides of their bodies and by their rough skin.

With a few exceptions, salamandrids have patterns of bright and contrasting colours. They have four well-developed limbs, with four toes on the fore limbs, and (in most cases) five toes on the hind limbs. They vary from 7 to 30 cm (3 to 12 in) in length.[1]

The alpine salamander and Lanza's fire salamander give birth to live young, without a tadpole stage, but the other species lay their eggs in water. Some newts are neotenic, being able to reproduce before they are fully metamorphosed.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Cladograms based on the work of Pyron and Wiens (2011)[2] and modified using Mikko Haaramo [3]


Salamandrininae

Archaeotriton basalticus



Salamandrina




Salamandrinae
Chioglossini

Mertensiella caucasica



Chioglossa lusitanica



Salamandrini

Megalotriton filholi



Lyciasalamandra



Salamandra




Pleurodelinae

Carpathotriton


Pleurodelini

Brachycormus noachicus



Chelotriton



Palaeopleurodeles hauffi



Pleurodeles




Echinotriton



Tylototriton




Molgini
Tarichina

Notophthalmus



Taricha



Molgina

Koalliella genzeli



Oligosemia spinosa



Lissotriton






Neurergus



Ommatotriton





Calotriton



Triturus






Euproctus




Ichthyosaura alpestris


Cynopita

Procynops miocenicus



Laotriton laoensis




Pachytriton




Cynops



Paramesotriton













Taxonomy[edit]

The genera Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella, and Salamandra are grouped in the subfamily Salamandrinae, the rest are in Pleurodelinae.[4] Those with a more thoroughly aquatic lifestyle are referred to as "newts", but this is not a formal taxonomic description.

Family SALAMANDRIDAE

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lanza, B., Vanni, S., & Nistri, A. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G., ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  2. ^ Pyron, R.A.; Weins, J.J. (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of advanced frogs, salamanders, and caecilians". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–853. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012. 
  3. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2011). "Caudata – salamanders". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. 
  4. ^ http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/references.php?id=27224
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