Overview

Comprehensive Description

Differential diagnosis

Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 belongs to Syrphinae (Syrphidae) and it is the only genus included in Tribe Toxomerini, with approximately 150 species described in the world. It occurs mainly in the Neotropical Region with 143 species, followed by the Neartic Region with 16 species (9 endemic) (Borges and Couri 2009).

The genus Toxomerus is characterized by : eye with distinct triangular emargination on posterior margin; gena narrow; arista bare; postpronotum bare; meron bare; anatergum bare; katatergum bare; posterior spiracle with short pile on margin; metasternum bare; metaepisternum pilose; metaepimeron bare; male genitalia well sclerotized, very short to long postanal process arising from fused surstylar apodemes and projecting caudad between bases of surstyli (Borges and Couri 2009).

Toxomerus marginatus is a small species (less than 9 mm in lenght), scutum with lateral yellow vitta continuos from postpronotum to scutellum; thorax with yellow macula above procoxa; scutellum yellow, black pilose; anepimeron black; and abdomen with pale medial areas with submedial black vittate maculae.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Distribution

Widespread species ranging from Canada south to Central America. It was introduced in Hawaii.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Citation

Toxomerus marginatus (Say, 1823).

Say, T. (1823) Descriptions of dipterous insects of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 3, 9-32 [1823.04.??], 33-64 [1823.05.??], 73-104.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Nomenclature and Synonymy

Synonyms:

Mesograpta circumdata Bigot, 1884: 107.

Mesogramma comma Giglio-Tos, 1892: 4.

Scaeva marginata Say, 1823: 92.

Syrphus limbiventris Thomson, 1869: 495.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Technical Description

New description:

MALE.

Head: Face produced forward ventrally, with facial tubercle, yellow, yellow pilose; gena black, yellow pilose; frontal triangle yellow, yellow pilose; vertical triangle black, black pilose; antenna yellow, arista brown; eye bare, dichoptic, eyes separated by aristal width; occiput black, silvery-golden pollinose, withish-yellow pilose.

Thorax: Scutum black with yellow vita on lateral margin from postpronotum to scutellum, bronze pollinose with dorsomedial white pollinose vitta, yellow pilose; postpronotum yellow, bare; scutellum yellow with dorsomedial brown macula, black pilose, subscutellar fringe sparse with yellow pile. Pleuron mostly black, except proepimeron yellow, posterior anepisternum yellow on posterior half, and katepisternum black with dorsal yellow macula; metasternum bare; calypter yellow; plumula yellow; halter yellow; spiracular fringes yellow. Wing: Wing membrane slightly bronish, stigma dark yellow; mostly microtrichose, bare basally on 2nd costal cell and cells R1, R, BM and CuP. Alula broad, microtrichose. Legs: Entirely yellow except procoxa black, meso- and metatarsi brown, black and yellow pilose.

Abdomen: Parallel-sided. Dorsum: 1st and 2nd terga yellow pilose, the rest black pilose; 1st tergum black except lateral and anterior margin yellow continuous with the lateral margin of the other terga; 2nd tergum black except lateral margins yellow, with medial broad yellow fascia; 3rd and 4th terga with lateral and submedial black vittae connected posteriorly with a black fascia interrupted in the medial point of the tergum, with submedial maculate vittae (sometimes the black fascia connecting vittae is not present); 5th tergum with a medial black macula on anterior margin and 2 sublateral black vitta.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Ecology

Associations

Flowering Plants Visited by Toxomerus marginatus in Illinois

Toxomerus marginatus Say: Syrphidae, Diptera
(observations are from Robertson, Graenicher, Reed, Schemske et al., Small, Todd et al., and Krannitz & Maun)

Acanthaceae: Justicia americana fp np (Rb); Alismataceae: Alisma plantago-aquatica sn fq (Rb), Sagittaria latifolia [stam sn] (Rb); Anacardiaceae: Rhus copallina [pist sn] (Rb), Rhus glabra [stam sn fq] [pist sn fq] (Rb); Amaryllidaceae: Hypoxis hirsuta fp (Rb); Apiaceae: Chaerophyllum procumbens sn (Rb), Cicuta maculata sn (Rb), Cryptotaenia canadensis sn (Rb), Erigenia bulbosa sn (Rb), Eryngium yuccifolium sn (Rb), Heracleum maximum sn (Rb), Osmorhiza longistylis sn (Rb), Oxypolis rigidior sn (Rb), Pastinaca sativa sn fq (Rb), Perideridia americana sn fq (Rb), Sanicula marilandica sn (Rb), Sium suave sn (Rb), Taenidia integerrima sn (Rb), Thaspium trifoliatum flavum sn (Rb), Zizia aurea sn (Rb); Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias verticillata [plab sn] (Rb); Asteraceae: Achillea millefolium sn/fp (Rb, Gr, Re), Antennaria plantaginifolia [stam sn fq icp] [pist sn fq icp] (Rb), Anthemis cotula sn/fp (Gr), Arnoglossum muhlenbergii sn/fp (Gr), Aster drummondii sn/fp (Gr), Aster ericoides sn/fp (Rb, Re), Aster furcatus sn/fp (Gr), Aster laevis sn/fp (Gr), Aster lanceolatus sn/fp (Rb, Gr, Re), Aster lateriflorus sn/fp (Gr), Aster macrophyllus sn/fp (Gr), Aster novae-angliae sn/fp (Gr), Aster pilosus sn fq (Rb), Aster prenanthoides sn/fp (Gr), Aster sagittifolius sn (Rb), Aster turbinellus sn (Rb), Bidens cernua sn (Rb), Boltonia asterioides sn fp (Rb), Chrysopsis villosa sn/fp (Re), Cirsium arvense sn/fp (Gr, Re), Conyza canadensis sn/fp (Rb, Gr), Coreopsis palmata sn/fp (Rb, Re), Erigeron annuus sn/fp (Gr), Erigeron philadelphicus sn/fp (Gr), Erigeron strigosus sn/fp fq (Rb, Re), Eupatoriadelphus purpureus sn/fp (Gr), Eupatorium perfoliatum sn/fp (Rb, Gr), Euthamia graminifolia sn/fp (Gr), Helianthus pauciflorus sn/fp (Re), Helianthus strumosus sn/fp (Gr), Heliopsis helianthoides sn/fp (Re), Krigia biflora sn fq (Rb), Leucanthemum vulgare sn/fp (Gr), Oligoneuron rigidum sn/fp (Re), Parthenium integrifolium sn (Rb), Ratibida pinnata sn/fp (Gr, Re), Rudbeckia hirta sn/fp fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Rudbeckia subtomentosa sn fp fq (Rb), Senecio aureus sn (Rb), Solidago canadensis sn/fp (Gr, Re), Solidago juncea sn/fp (Gr), Solidago missouriensis sn (Rb), Tanacetum vulgare sn/fp (Gr), Verbesina helianthoides fp np (Rb); Brassicaceae: Capsella bursa-pastoris sn (Rb), Cardamine bulbosa sn (Rb), Lepidium virginicum sn fq (Rb), Rorippa palustris sn fp (Rb); Caesalpiniaceae: Chamaecrista fasciculata [exfl sn] (Rb); Campanulaceae: Campanula rotundifolia fp np (Re); Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera reticulata fp np (Gr), Lonicera tartarica fp np (Gr), Symphoricarpos occidentalis sn/fp (Gr), Symphoricarpos orbiculatus sn (Rb), Viburnum opulus fq (KM), Viburnum prunifolium sn (Rb); Caryophyllaceae: Cerastium fontanum sn (Rb), Cerastium nutans fp (Rb), Stellaria longifolia sn (Rb), Stellaria media sn fq (Rb); Celastraceae: Euonymus atropurpureus sn (Rb); Commelinaceae: Tradescantia virginiana fp np (Rb); Convolvulaceae: Stylisma pickeringii pattersonii (TOC); Cornaceae: Cornus florida sn (Rb), Cornus obliqua sn (Rb); Cucurbitaceae: Echinocystis lobata sn (Rb), Sicyos angulatus sn (Rb); Euphorbiaceae: Chamaesyce nutans sn (Rb); Fabaceae: Amorpha canescens fp np (Re), Dalea purpurea sn/fp (Rb, Re), Desmodium canadense fp/exp np (Re), Melilotus alba sn/fp (Re), Strophostyles helvola [exfl sn] (Rb); Geraniaceae: Geranium carolinianum sn fq (Rb); Hydrophyllaceae: Ellisia nyctelea fp (Rb); Iridaceae: Sisyrinchium angustifolium sn (Rb); Lamiaceae: Agastache foeniculum sn/fp (Re), Hedeoma pulegioides fp np (Rb), Lycopus americanus sn (Rb), Monarda fistulosa fp np (Re), Nepeta cataria sn/fp (Re), Pycnanthemum tenuifolium sn fq (Rb), Pycnanthemum virginianum sn/fp (Re), Stachys palustris fp np (Rb, Re); Lauraceae: Sassafras albidum sn (Rb); Liliaceae: Allium canadense sn/fp (Gr), Melanthium virginicum sn np (Rb), Nothoscordum bivalve sn (Rb), Smilacina stellata sn/fp (Gr), Tofieldia glutinosa sn/fp (Gr); Lythraceae: Ammannia coccinea sn (Rb); Malvaceae: Abutilon theophrastii fp np (Rb), Malva neglecta sn fp (Rb); Molluginaceae: Mollugo verticillata sn fp (Rb); Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo lutea fp (Rb); Onagraceae: Circaea lutetiana sn (Rb), Ludwigia polycarpa sn (Rb); Orchidaceae: Calopogon tuberosus exp fq np (Sm); Oxalidaceae: Oxalis stricta fp np (Rb); Papaveraceae: Sanguinaria canadensis fp (Gr); Polemoniaceae: Polemonium reptans fp np (Rb); Polygonaceae: Persicaria pensylvanica sn (Rb); Portulacaceae: Claytonia virginica sn (Rb, Shm); Ranunculaceae: Anemone canadensis fp (Re), Clematis virginiana [stam sn] (Rb), Enemion biternatum fp np (Rb), Ranunculus abortivus sn fq (Rb), Ranunculus fascicularis sn fp fq (Rb); Rhamnaceae: Ceanothus americanus sn (Rb), Rhamnus lanceolata sn (Rb); Rosaceae: Amelanchier arborea sn (Rb), Fragaria virginiana sn (Rb), Geum canadense sn (Rb), Potentilla arguta sn/fp (Re), Potentilla norvegica sn (Rb), Potentilla recta sn/fp (Re), Prunus americana sn fq (Rb), Rosa blanda fp (Re), Rubus allegheniensis fp np (Rb); Rubiaceae: Galium trifidum sn (Rb), Houstonia lanceolata sn (Rb); Salicaceae: Salix amygdaloides [pist sn] (Rb), Salix nigra [stam sn] (Rb); Saxifragaceae: Mitella diphylla sn/fp (Gr); Scrophulariaceae: Penstemon digitalis fsp np (Rb), Scrophularia marilandica fp np (Rb), Triodanis perfoliata fp np (Rb), Verbascum thapsus fp np (Rb), Veronica arvensis sn (Rb), Veronica peregrina sn (Rb), Veronicastrum virginicum fp np (Rb); Solanaceae: Datura stramonium tatula fp np (Rb); Valerianaceae: Valerianella radiata sn (Rb); Verbenaceae: Phyla lanceolata sn fq (Rb); Violaceae: Viola pubescens fp np (Rb)

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Larva (from Fluke 1929).

4 to 4.5 mm long, 1 mm wide. Body light greenish yellow. The only dark areas are where the viscera show through. Integument transparent, very slightly papillose. Segmental spines very short and light in color; no integumental vestiture. The posterior respiratory organ situated O:n a papillose base which is as high as the appendage is long. The chitinous ring is not very strong and surrounds the entire organ with gentle indentation curves both dorsal and ventral. In the evolutionary development of this species, spiracles II and III have migrated so that II now occupies the position of III. This also means that the inner or mesal ends of the spiracle were once the outer or distal ends.

Puparium (from Fluke 1929).

Length 5.2 mm., width 1.5 mm., widest at the front one-third; evenly rounded anteriorly, tapering gradually to rear. Ventral line almost straight. Two prominent irregular, curved dark lines along the sides, the more dorsal one running from near the front end to within 1 mm. of the rear. Lower line a little more than half as long as the pupa.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Phylogeny

Toxomerus is the single genus of the tribe Toxomerini. Recently, Mengual et al. (2008) included several species of Toxomerus in their phylogenetic analysis and Toxomerini was resolved as a monophyletic group within the clade of the genus Ocyptamus.

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Source: Flower flies (Syrphidae)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

GenBank accession number for this species are: protein-coding COI gene (HM062546; AY261705; EU409160), rRNA 28S gene (HM062624; AY261752; EU409214),18S gene (EU431555; EU409277), 12S gene (HM062596; AF154745), 16S gene (AF154821; AF154820), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase gene (HM062762), CAD gene (HM062742), triose phophate isomerase gene (HM062690), white-like gene (HM062701), elongation factor 1a gene (HM062672), alanyl-tRNA synthetase gene (HM062649), and cytochrome b gene (HM062568).
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Toxomerus marginatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 290
Specimens with Barcodes: 412
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Toxomerus marginatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 9 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTTGGAGCTTGAGCTGGATTAGTTGGTACATCATTA---AGTATTTTAATTCGTGCAGAACTTGGACATCCAGGTGCATTAATTGGAGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTAATCGTAACTGCTCATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAATTGATTAGTTCCTTTAATA---TTAGGAGCTCCTGATATAGCATTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCTCCTTCATTAACATTATTATTAGTAAGTAGTATGGTTGAAAATGGAGCCGGAACAGGTTGAACAGTTTATCCTCCTCTTTCAGCTAATATTGCACATGGTGGAGCTTCAGTTGATTTA---GCAATTTTTTCACTTCATTTAGCTGGTATATCTTCAATTTTAGGAGCAGTAAATTTTATTACAACAGTAATTAATATACGATCAAATGGTATTTCATACGATCGAATACCATTATTTGTATGGTCAGTAGTAATTACAGCTCTTTTACTTTTATTATCATTACCAGTTTTAGCAGGA---GCTATTACTATATTATTAACTGATCGAAATTTAAATACTTCATTTTTCGATCCTGCTGGAGGTGGTGATCCAATTTTATACCAACATTTATTTTGATTCTTTGGTCATCCTGAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCAGGATTTGGTATAATTTCTCATATTATTAGTCAAGAATGTGGTAAAAAG---GAAACATTTGGATCATTAGGTATAATTTATGCAATATTAGCAATTGGATTATTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATATTTACAGTTGGAATGGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTATTTTACTTCAGCAACTATAATTATTGCTGTTCCAACTGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGTTGATTA---GCAACATTACATGGAA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Wikipedia

Toxomerus marginatus

Toxomerus marginatus, is a common species of hoverfly. It is found in many parts of North America.

The larvae are reported to feed on pollen. Adult feed on a wide range of flowers.[1]

References

  1. ^ Reemer, Menno; Rotheray, Graham E. (16 April 2009). "Pollen feeding larvae in the presumed predatory syrphine genus Toxomerus Macquart (Diptera, Syrphidae)" (PDF). Journal of Natural History (UK: Taylor and Francis) 43 (15): 939–949. doi:10.1080/00222930802610576. ISSN 1464-5262.


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