The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2010. Punishment important in plant-pollinator relationship. Science Daily [Internet],
  • Book of Insect Records: Chapter 25 Greatest Host Specificity, G. H. Schneider, University of Florida, April 15, 1997
  • Cook, J.M. and J.-Y. Rasplus. 2003. Mutualists with attitude: coevolving fig wasps and figs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(5): 241-248.
  • Fig Fruit Facts, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
  • Fig Wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae, Eurytomidae and Ormyridae) and Ficus (Moraceae) Species Richness and Biogeography of Monts Doudou in Southwestern Gabon, Simon van Noort, California Academy of Sciences Memoir, vol. 28, 2004, pp. 217-233
  • Figs and fig wasps, S. van Noort and J. Y. Rasplus, Iziko Museums of Cape Town
  • Jandér KC; Herre EA. 2010. Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree–fig wasp mutualism. Proc. R. Soc. B. 277(1687): 1481-1488.
  • Kislev, M.E., A. Hartmann, and O. Bar-Yosef. 2006a. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley, Science 312(5778): 1372-1374.
  • Kislev, M.E., A. Hartmann, and O. Bar-Yosef. 2006b. Response to comment on "Early domesticated fig in the Jordan valley". Science 314(5806): 1683b.
  • Lev-Yadun, S., G. Ne'eman, S. Abbo, and M.A. Flaishman. 2006. Comment on "Early domesticated fig in the Jordan valley". Science 314(5806): 1683a.
  • Lopez-Vaamonde, C., N. Wikström, K.M. Kjer, G.D. Weiblen, J.-Y. Rasplus, C.A. Machado, and J.M. Cook. 2009. Molecular dating and biogeography of fig-pollinating wasps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 715-726.
  • Machado, C.A., N. Robbins, M.T.P. Gilbert, and E.A. Herre. 2005. Critical review of host specificity and its coevolutionary implications in the fig/fig-wasp mutualism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.) 102 (suppl. 1): 6558-6565
  • Marussich, W.A. and C.A. Machado. 2007. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps. Molecular Ecology 16: 1925-1946.
  • Moe, A.M., D.R. Rossi, and G.D. Weiblen. 2011. Pollinator sharing in dioecious figs (Ficus: Moraceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103: 546–558.
  • Munro JB, Heraty, J.M., R.A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, et al. 2011. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS ONE 6(11): e27023. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027023.
  • Quick Guide: Figs and Fig Wasps, J. M. Cook and S. A. West, Current Biology, vol. 15, no. 24, December 2005
  • Suleman, N., S. Raja, and S.G. Compton. 2012. Only pollinator fig wasps have males that collaborate to release their females from figs of an Asian fig tree. Biology Letters 8: 344-346.
  • Weiblen, G.D. 2002. How to be a fig wasp. Annual review of Entomology 47: 299-330.
  • Yang, P., Z. Li, Y. Peng, and D. Yang. 2012. Exchange of hosts: can agaonid fig wasps reproduce successfully in the figs of non-host Ficus? Naturwissenschaften. 99: 199-205.
  • Zavodna, M., S.M. Knapp, S.G. Compton, et al. 2007. Reconstruction of fig wasp mating structure: how many mothers share a fig? Ecological Entomology 32: 485-491.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!