The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Brown, B. V. 1993. Taxonomy and preliminary phylogeny of the parasitic genus Apocephalus, subgenus Mesophora (Diptera: Phoridae). Systematic Entomology 18:191-230.
  • Brues, C. T. 1924. Notes on Some New England Phoridæ (Diptera). Psyche 31: 41–44. doi:10.1155/1924/42175.
  • Coghlan, A. 2012. Parasitic fly could account for disappearing honeybees. New Scientist 2846 (January 3, 2012).
  • Core, A., Runcke, C., Ivers, J., Quock, C., Siapno, T. DeNault, S., Brown, B. DeRisi, J., Smith, C. D., and Hafernik, j. 2012. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis. PLoS ONE 7 (1): e29639. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029639
  • Ennik, F. 1973. Apocephalus borealis Brues parasitic upon Vespula spp. (Diptera: Phoridae, Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 49:403-404.
  • Pape T. & Thompson F.C. (eds) (2013). Systema Dipterorum (version 2.0, Jan 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.


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