Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

This genus includes only the type species S. globosa Théel and S. clarki Hansen, distinguished primarily by the presence of smooth skin with sturdy papillae in the former and warty skin with slender papillae in the latter. In southern Africa only the type species occurs, here reported for the first time. Scotoplanes albida Théel, 1882, collected by the 'Challenger' from off the south-western Cape coast at 347 m is, according to Hansen (1975), probably referable to Ellipinion Hérouard, 1923.
  • Thandar, A.S. (1999). Deep-sea Holothuroids taken by the R.V. Africana II in 1959, from off the West Coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., Vol. 105(9): 364-409, 16 figs, 2 tables
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1085 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1059 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 26 - 6715
  Temperature range (°C): -2.028 - 3.864
  Nitrate (umol/L): 23.293 - 44.722
  Salinity (PPS): 34.071 - 34.911
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.542 - 7.716
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.503 - 3.279
  Silicate (umol/l): 34.792 - 182.877

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 26 - 6715

Temperature range (°C): -2.028 - 3.864

Nitrate (umol/L): 23.293 - 44.722

Salinity (PPS): 34.071 - 34.911

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.542 - 7.716

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.503 - 3.279

Silicate (umol/l): 34.792 - 182.877
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:1Public Records:0
Specimens with Sequences:0Public Species:0
Specimens with Barcodes:0Public BINs:0
Species:1         
Species With Barcodes:0         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Scotoplanes

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Genomic DNA is available from 2 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Research Collection of Slava Ivanenko
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© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

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Wikipedia

Scotoplanes

Scotoplanes, commonly known as the sea pig, is a genus of deep-sea holothurian echinoderm of the family Elpidiidae, order Elasipodida.

Locomotion[edit]

Members of the Elpidiidae have particularly enlarged tube feet that have taken on a leg-like appearance, and are the only instance of legged locomotion amongst the holothurians, using water cavities within the skin (rather than within the leg itself) to inflate and deflate the appendages.[2] These legs, in conjunction with their large, plump appearance (about 6 inches/15 cm long) have suggested the common name "sea pig". There are other genera of Elpidiidae with a similar appearance that have also been referred to as "sea pigs".

Ecology[edit]

Scotoplanes live on deep ocean bottoms, specifically on the abyssal plain in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean, typically at depths of over 1000 meters.[3] Some related species can be found in the Antarctic. Scotoplanes (and all deep-sea holothurians) are deposit feeders, and obtain food by extracting organic particles from deep-sea mud. Scotoplanes globosa has been observed to demonstrate strong preferences for rich, organic food that has freshly fallen from the ocean's surface,[4] and uses olfaction to locate preferred food sources such as whale corpses.[5]

Scotoplanes, like many sea cucumbers, often occur in huge densities, sometimes numbering in the hundreds when observed. Early collections have recorded 300 to 600 individual specimens per trawl. Sea pigs are also known to host different parasitic invertebrates, including gastropods (snails) and small tanaid crustaceans.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus includes the following species:[6]

Threats[edit]

The main threat against Scotoplanes is deep-sea trawling. A single trawler sweep can catch and kill as many as 300 Scotoplanes. Since these animals make up a substantial part of the nutrition of deep-sea predators, this bycatch represents a serious threat to deep-sea life. A secondary threat to "scotoplanes" is the consumption of the creature in areas of Japan where they are considered a delicacy. The large, plump bodies have been associated with the taste of chicken[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Théel, H (1886). Report on the Holothurioidea dredged by HMS Challenger during the years 1873-76. 
  2. ^ Hansen, B. (1972). "Photographic evidence of a unique type of walking in deep-sea holothurians". Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts 19 (6): 461–462. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(72)90056-3.  edit
  3. ^ Llano, George Biology of the Antarctic Seas III, Volume 11 of Antarctic research series, Volume 3 of Biology of the Antarctic seas, Issue 1579 of Publication (National Research Council (U.S.))) American Geophysical Union, 1967, p. 57
  4. ^ Miller, R. J.; Smith, C. R.; Demaster, D. J.; Fornes, W. L. (2000). "Feeding selectivity and rapid particle processing by deep-sea megafaunal deposit feeders: A 234Th tracer approach". Journal of Marine Research 58 (4): 653. doi:10.1357/002224000321511061.  edit
  5. ^ Pawson, DL; Vance, DJ (2005). "Rynkatorpa felderi, new species, from a bathyal hydrocarbon seep in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Apodida)". Zootaxa (Magnolia Press) 1050: 15–20. 
  6. ^ MarineSpecies.org – Scotoplanes
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