Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Delia radicum may be distinguished from other Delia species occurring in the field by the following combinations of characters: Adults look similar to house flies but are smaller (5mm), dark ash grey color with a dark stripe along the top of the abdomen, and covered with black hairs and bristles (setae).The reddish purple eyes on males nearly touch in the centre of the head while female eyes are separated. In males, the presence of the basal brush of long setae (anteroventral setae) on the hind femur and by relatively shorter lateral setae of the 5th sternite processes. In females, in the hind femur, the row of anteroventral setae is normally uneven and posteroventral setae are lacking.
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Distribution

Holarctic. Delia radicum can be found through out Canada, where cultivation of cruciferous crops is undertaken.
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Ecology

Habitat

It is a major pest of Cruciferae crops and it is confined to gardens and cultivated lands.
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Trophic Strategy

Larvae are notorious root maggots infesting all forms of cultivated cruciferous crops. The larvae can also be found on certain cruciferous weeds among which stink weed (Thlaspi arvense L.) is particularly important in Alberta as cited by Griffiths( 1986).
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Associations

Flowering Plants Visited by Delia radicum in Illinois

Delia radicum Linnaeus: Anthomyiidae, Diptera
(this observation is from Robertson)

Ranunculaceae: Ranunculus septentrionalis

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Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Brassica oleracea var. capitata

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live sprout of Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Brassica rapa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Brassica oleracea var. italica

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Raphanus sativus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Erysimum cheiri

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Lobularia maritima

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Delia radicum feeds within live root of Matthiola

Animal / predator
larva of Phaonia trimaculata is predator of larva of Delia radicum

Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
larva of Trybliographa rapae is endoparasitoid of larva of Delia radicum

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Appears to be one to two generation a year in Alberta with emergence from overwintered puparia spread from mid May to mid July.
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Life Cycle

Adults are found from late spring to late October flying close to the ground in search of suitable host plants. Flies emerge in the spring from overwintering puparia and feed on the nectar of wild flowers. They mate and females begin egg laying about a week after emerging. During their 5-6 week life span, females lay eggs singly or in masses at or near the stems of host plants on cool, moist soil. Depending on temperature, maggots hatch in 3-10days and commence feeding on small roots and root hairs and then tunnel in to the main roots. They mature in about 3-4weeks, then leave the roots and pupate in puparia about 5-20cm deep in the soil. Adult flies emerge in 2-3 weeks, mate, lay eggs, and repeat the cycle
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Delia radicum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Not of concern.
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Wikipedia

Delia radicum

Delia radicum, known variously as the cabbage fly, cabbage root fly, root fly or turnip fly, is a pest of crops.[2] The larvae of the cabbage root fly are sometimes known as the cabbage maggot or root maggot. The adult flies are approximately 1 cm long and are grey in colour but otherwise resemble the common house fly.[3]

The flies can be found all over Europe. After over-wintering as pupae in the soil, the flies hatch in spring, feed on nectar and lay eggs close to plants of the genus Brassica. The eggs are white and about 1 milimetre in diameter. They hatch into white maggots after about six days and the larvae feed for about three weeks on the roots and stems of the cabbage plants. After this, the larvae are typically 0.9 to 1 cm in length and form reddish brown pupae which hatch into adult flies after around 20 days. This species is monovoltine (has one generation a year) in northern Europe and bi- or trivoltine in central Europe.[4]

Economic significance[edit]

The first sign of the presence of the larvae is a delay in plant growth accompanied by the withering of leaves which develop a bluish tinge. The larvae are found on cabbage, turnip, swede, radish and other cruciferous crops. Sometimes 300 larvae can be found on one plant, damaging the inner parts of the main root and disrupting the transport of water and nutrients to the stem and leaves causing the death of many plants.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soos, A.; Papp, L. (Eds.) (1986). Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 13, Anthomyiidae - Tachinidae. Hungarian Natural History Museum. pp. 624 pp. ISBN 963-7093-21-4. 
  2. ^ Marks, David. "Cabbage root fly". Garden Action. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  3. ^ "Cabbage root fly". www.abdn.ac.uk. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  4. ^ a b AgroAtlas
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