Members of this family are frequently reared from infested fruit. Although many of these species attack other insects within the fruit, there are several that appear to be exclusively parasitic on fruit-infesting Tephritidae. These include at least three species of Tetrastichus native to Africa (LaSalle and Wharton 2002) as well as Aceratoneuromyia indica (Silvestri) , a species apparently originating in southern Asia but which has been widely distributed for biological control of several tephritid pests. Several genera of eulophids have been reared from olives in association with studies on the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi). Whether all of these attack olive fly is questionable, but at least some of them do (e. g. Pnigalio mediterraneus Ferriere and Delucchi, P. longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838), and Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood, 1833)). Melittobia has also been reared from Tephritidae, though members of this genus are better known as parastioids of nesting aculeate Hymenoptera.
Eulophids can be readily distinguished from all other parasitoids of fruit-infesting tephritids by their four-segmented tarsi. Aceratoneuromyia indica (Figs. 1, 2) has a brown body, and lacks longitudinal grooves on the scutellum. The three species of Tetrastichus noted above are metallic in color (usually blue or bluish-black) (Figs. 3, 4) and usually have distinct longitudinal grooves on the scutellum. These characters do not hold for all members of their respective genera, but provide a convenient means of separating the three species of Tetrastichus from A. indica in places where they co-occur.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||4,332||Public Records:||1,403|
|Specimens with Sequences:||3,305||Public Species:||173|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||2,567||Public BINs:||228|
|Species With Barcodes:||281|
Locations of barcode samples
|Wikispecies has information related to: Eulophidae|
The Eulophidae are a large family of hymenopteran insects, with over 4,300 described species in some 300 genera. The family as presently defined also includes the genus Elasmus, which was previously treated as a separate family, "Elasmidae", and is now treated as a subfamily of Eulophidae. These minute insects are challenging to study, as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of a very few species feed on plants, but the majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of arthropods at all stages of development. They are exceptional in that they are one of two hymenopteran families with some species that are known to parasitize Thysanoptera. Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid beetles).
Eulophids are separable from most other Chalcidoidea by the possession of only four tarsomeres on each leg, a small, straight protibial spur (as opposed to the larger, curved one in most other chalcidoids), and by antennae with two to four funicle segments and at most 10 antennomeres.