Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Nisaetus floris is found in Indonesia, on the islands of Flores, Sumbawa and Lombok (on the borders of Rinjani National Park) as well as on two satellite islands, Satonda near Sumbawa and Rinca near Flores (Gjershaug et al. 2004). The species has also occurred on Komodo, with an individual photographed on a mangrove islet less than 800 m offshore in 2011 (Coates and Bishop 1997, Collaerts et al. 2013). It has recently been discovered on Alor and is apparently present throughout the island (Collaerts et al. 2013). A record from Paloe (Verheijen 1961) has not been confirmed. Its population size has been estimated at fewer than 100 pairs, based on the extent of suitable habitat and a territory size estimate of c.40 km2 (Gjershaug et al. 2004), although it is estimated that at least 20 additional pairs inhabit Alor (Collaerts et al. 2013). The lack of records obtained during fieldwork within its range suggest it occurs at low densities, supporting this population estimate. Population trends are not known, but it is assumed to be declining owing to on-going forest loss in the Lesser Sundas.

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Range

Lesser Sundas (Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores and Paloe).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found in lowland and submontane forest up to 1,600 m, with the majority of observations being made in lowland rainforest. It has been sighted over cultivated areas, but always close to intact or semi-intact forest; these records may relate to dispersing, immature or floater individuals rather than breeding adults. These records of birds outside core habitat suggest that the species may be able to disperse across the relatively narrow straits between islands so mixing between island sub-populations is inferred. Evidence suggests that breeding takes place during the dry season. Display flight and copulation have been observed on Flores in June-July. A territory size of 40 km2 per pair has been estimated (Gjershaug et al. 2004).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Butchart, S., Dutson, G., Eaton, J., Gjershaug, J., Collaerts, P., Prawiradilaga, D. & Verbelen, F.

Justification
This species has an extremely small population that is undergoing a continuing and very rapid decline as a result of habitat clearance, and as a consequence it is listed as Critically Endangered.


History
  • 2012
    Critically Endangered
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Population

Population
On the basis of distances between three neighbouring territories, the species's territory size was estimated at c.40km2. Given that it is primarily dependent on forest, this implies that the total population size for the species is probably less than 100 pairs or 200 mature individuals. In addition at least 20 pairs have been estimated to occur on the island of Alor, representing another 40 mature individuals. It is estimated at 100-240 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 150-360 individuals in total.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat degradation and destruction are the most important threats; records are infrequent and it has rarely been recorded during trips to several large forest tracts suggesting extreme low density and casting some doubt on the assertion that it may be able to survive in a partly cultivated landscape. Protected areas in its range are currently too small to ensure its long-term survival. Persecution, due to its habit of preying on chickens, and capture for the cagebird trade pose additional threats.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded from Rinjani National Park on Lombok. Work is underway to inform local people of the importance of this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Ensure the survival of the species by securing further protected areas within its range. Reduce persecution and exploitation levels through local education programmes. Conduct further research on the species's population size, trends and range. Verify records from additional islands. Study movements and determine population structure.

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Wikipedia

Flores Hawk-Eagle

The Flores Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus floris) (formerly Spizaetus floris), is a fairly large, up to 75–79 centimetres (30–31 in) long, raptor in the family Accipitridae. Adults have dark brown upperparts, a brown tail with six bars, a white patch in the wings that is visible in flight, white underparts, and a white head with fine brownish streaks on the crown (many books erroneously illustrate adults with largely brown heads).[2] It has traditionally been treated as a subspecies of the Changeable Hawk-eagle; at least in part because of confusion over the true adult plumage of the Flores Hawk-Eagle, which resembles the juvenile of the Changeable Hawk-eagle.[2] Unlike that species, adult and juvenile Flores Hawk-Eagles are quite similar.[2]

An Indonesian endemic, the Flores Hawk-Eagle is distributed in forests of Flores, Lombok and Sumbawa in the Lesser Sundas. It mainly occurs in lowlands, but has been recorded at altitudes as high as 1,600 metres (5,200 ft).[2] The diet consists mainly of birds, lizards, snakes and mammals.[citation needed]

Due to ongoing habitat loss within its small range, capture for the cage bird trade and persecution due to its habit of taking chickens, the Flores Hawk-Eagle is evaluated as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1] It is estimated that less than 100 pairs remain.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2013). "Nisaetus floris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Gjershaug, J. O., Kvaløy, K., Røv, N., Prawiradilaga, D. M., Suparman, U., and Rahman, Z. (2004). The taxonomic status of Flores Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus floris. Forktail 20: 55–62
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