Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The species is found in patches of highly fragmented deciduous forest in western Madagascar between the Mahavavy and Manambolo Rivers. The southern limit of its range does not extend to the Tsiribihina River, which marks the northern limit of P. verreauxi. To the north, within the coastal forests that occur between the Betsiboka and Mahavavy Rivers, the geographic separation between P. deckenii and P. coronatus is clear, but not on both sides of the lower reaches of the Mahavavy where the changing river course allows the populations to interchange (Thalmann et al. 2002). More confusing is the situation in forests of the Bongolava Massif, where animals with colour patterns characteristic of both species have been observed; populations of both species also can be found at a number of other sites (Thalmann et al. 2002).
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Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Mangroves Habitat

The endangered Malagasy sacred ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), is found in the Madagascar mangroves ecoregion as well as certain other western coastal Madagascar habitat and the Seychelles. These Madagascar mangroves shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Although up to nine mangrove tree species have been recorded, most of the Madagascar mangrove stands contain six species in four families: Rhizophoracae (Rhizopora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia marina), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba) and Combretaceae (Lumnitzera racemosa).

Some ot the other notable avian associates of the Madagascar mangroves are: the Madagascar Heron (Ardea humbloti, VU), Madagascar Teal (Anas bernieri, EN), Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus, VU), and Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides, CR). The Malagasy kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides) is also thought to occur in these mangroves. This habitat is important for migratory bird species, such as Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Crab plover (Dromas ardeola), Gray plover (Charadrius squatarola), African spoonbill (Platalea alba) and Great White Egret (Egretta alba).

A number of mammalian taxa are found in the ecoregion, chiefly lemurs, tenrecs and bats. The sole terrestrial apex mammalian predator of the ecoregion is the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), a Madagascar endemic.

Tenrecs occurring in the ecoregion are: Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), the tiniest extant tenrec; Greater hedgehog tenrec found in the Madagascar mangroves, an insectivorous mammal; Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi); and Tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus). Each of these tenrecs is endemic to Madagascar, save for the Tailless tenrec, which is also found on Comoros and a few other islands in the region.

Primates found in the Madagascar consist of several lemur species: the Endangered Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), endemic to western and southwestern Madagascar; the Vulnerable Black lemur (Eulemur macaco); the Vulnerable Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufus); the Vulnerable Sambirano Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis); the Endangered Coquerel's Mouse-lemur (Microcebus coquereli), a Madagascar endemic; the Vulnerable Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii), a western Madagascar endemic; Sambirano Woolly Lemur (Avahi unicolor), a northwestern Madagascar endemic; Pale-forked crown lemur (Phaner pallescens), endemic to western Madagascar; Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius); and Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

Bats occurring here are the Near Threatened Malagasy rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), a cave rooster capable of navigating the airspace of rather dense intact forest; Vulnerable Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum); Near Threatened Commerson's roundleaf bat (Hipposideros commersonii); Near threatened long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi); Rufous trident bat (Triaenops rufus); Malagasy giant mastiff bat (Otomops madagascariensis), a Madagascar endemic; Malagasy White-bellied Free-tailed Bat (Mops leucostigma), endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros islands of Anjouan and Moheli; Malagasy slit-faced bat (Nycteris madagascariensis), a narrow endemic to the Irodo River Valley in northern Madagascar; Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus); Trouessart's trident bat (Triaenops furculus), endemic to Madagascar and the outer Seychelles atolls; Manavi Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus manavi), endemic to Madagascar and Comoros; Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon leucogaster); Robust yellow bat (Scotophilus robustus); Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Suncus madagascariensis); and Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka). Flying foxes found in the ecoregion are: Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), an important seed disperser who mates whilst hanging upside down.

Other mammals found in the ecoregion are the Madagascan pygmy shrew (Suncus madagascariensis); The only Rodentia member in the ecoregion is the Dormouse tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus myoxinus).

There are a limited number of reptilian taxa found in the Madagascar mangroves: Snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus boutonii); and aquatic apex predator Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Some sea turtles, primarily green turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN) and Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR), nest along the western coast within the Madagascar mangroves. The declining species Dugong (Dugong dugong, VU) is also found in the mangroves.

There is only one amphibian species present in the Madagascar mangroves: Mascarene ridged frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis).

There is particularly high diversity among the fish populations in the Madagascar mangroves,the families of which include: Mugelidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Gerridae, Hemiramphidae, Plectrorhynchidae and Elopidae. The neighboring coral reefs that are associated with the mangroves have also been noted for extremely high fish diversity.

  • C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
  • Hughes, R.H. & Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. UUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2880329493
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
An inhabitant of dry deciduous forest patches. It seems to be fairly resilient to degradation of habitat; individuals have even been observed in Eucalyptus trees in the middle of Soalala town. This species has not been studied in the wild, though it is believed to occur in groups of 2–10 individuals. This species has suffered an approximate 25% loss in its habitat range over the last 3 years (J. Razafindramanana pers. comm).



Systems
  • Terrestrial
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It lives in dry, deciduous forests.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2cd+3cd+4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.

Reviewer/s
Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification

Listed as Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population reduction of ≥50% over the past 52.5 years (three generations, assuming a generation length of 17.5 years) due primarily to observed and inferred continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat due to burning of forests to provide pasture for livestock, logging for charcoal production and fragmentation.These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. A future population reduction of ≥50% over a 52.5 year period is also suspected due to the same causes and increased hunting with changes in values and breakdown of the taboo system. Assuming population reductions to continue, this species may need to be uplisted to Critically Endangered in the near future.


History
  • 2000
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
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Population

Population
The species is relatively common where it is present; however population figures are in decline due to habitat destruction.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Forests within this species’ range are already highly fragmented, and continued habitat loss is the greatest threat to its survival. Habitat is burned to provide pasture for livestock and cut for charcoal production. Hunting is rare as the animals are protected by a very strong taboo over much of their range (leading them to become very tame as a result); however, if the taboo were to break down for whatever reason the species could disappear very rapidly.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is known to occur in three national parks (Baie de Baly, Tsingy de Bemaraha, and Tsingy de Namoroka), the Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve, and four special reserves (Ambohijanahary, Bemarivo, Kasijy, and Maningoza). Found as well in at least one classified forest (Tsiombokibo), which provides some degree of protection. There are no specimens reported in captivity (I.J. Porton pers. comm.).
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Wikipedia

Von der Decken's sifaka

Von der Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii) is a sifaka endemic to Madagascar. It has a length of 92 to 107 centimeters, of which 42-48 centimeters are tail.[4] Von der Decken's Sifaka lives in western Madagascar.[4] It lives in dry deciduous forest.[4]

Its pelage is usually creamy white, with tinges of yellow-gold, silver grey or pale brown on the neck, shoulders, back and limbs. The face is entirely black.[4] Group size is between 2 and 10 individuals, with groups of 3 to 6 most common.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Andriaholinirina, N. et al. (2014). "Propithecus deckenii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  2. ^ "Checklist of CITES Species". CITES. UNEP-WCMC. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Garbutt, Nick (2007). Mammals of Madagascar, A Complete Guide. pp. 196–197. 
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