Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in north Madagascar. Found in a number of discontinuous pockets in northeastern and northwestern Madagascar. It is known (at least formerly) from the forests of Ankarana and Analamerana in the far north (and possibly in the Ankarana Massif as well); the Sambirano region (from south of Maromandia north through Beramanja and other areas west), the Ampasindava Peninsula, and the Sahamalaza region (north of the Andranomalaza River) in the northwest; the Tsiombikibo, Baie de Baly, Tsingy de Namaroka and Bongolava regions in the central-west between the Mahavavy and Tsiribihina Rivers; Masoala, Maroansetra and Ile Roger (Aye-aye Island) in the northeast; and as far south as Zahamena and Marovohangy near Lake Alaotra (Tattersall 1982; Hawkins et al. 1990, 1998; Rakotoarison et al. 1993; Curtis et al. 1995; Rabarivola et al. 2007; C. Schwitzer, pers. obs.).

Razanatsila (2012) reports that the species is easy to see in Nosy Faly Peninsula and Manongarivo Special reserve. Recent surveys demonstrate the presence of the species in many unprotected forests in the northern area of the island including the regions of Sava, Sofia and Diana: Beramanja, Ileviky (Ambilobe), Antsakay-Kalabenono, Bobakindro, Fanambana, Andrakata and Antalaha. The species is also seen in Bealanana corridor.
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Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Mangroves Habitat

The endangered Malagasy sacred ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), is found in the Madagascar mangroves ecoregion as well as certain other western coastal Madagascar habitat and the Seychelles. These Madagascar mangroves shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Although up to nine mangrove tree species have been recorded, most of the Madagascar mangrove stands contain six species in four families: Rhizophoracae (Rhizopora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia marina), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba) and Combretaceae (Lumnitzera racemosa).

Some ot the other notable avian associates of the Madagascar mangroves are: the Madagascar Heron (Ardea humbloti, VU), Madagascar Teal (Anas bernieri, EN), Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus, VU), and Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides, CR). The Malagasy kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides) is also thought to occur in these mangroves. This habitat is important for migratory bird species, such as Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Crab plover (Dromas ardeola), Gray plover (Charadrius squatarola), African spoonbill (Platalea alba) and Great White Egret (Egretta alba).

A number of mammalian taxa are found in the ecoregion, chiefly lemurs, tenrecs and bats. The sole terrestrial apex mammalian predator of the ecoregion is the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), a Madagascar endemic.

Tenrecs occurring in the ecoregion are: Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), the tiniest extant tenrec; Greater hedgehog tenrec found in the Madagascar mangroves, an insectivorous mammal; Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi); and Tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus). Each of these tenrecs is endemic to Madagascar, save for the Tailless tenrec, which is also found on Comoros and a few other islands in the region.

Primates found in the Madagascar consist of several lemur species: the Endangered Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), endemic to western and southwestern Madagascar; the Vulnerable Black lemur (Eulemur macaco); the Vulnerable Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufus); the Vulnerable Sambirano Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis); the Endangered Coquerel's Mouse-lemur (Microcebus coquereli), a Madagascar endemic; the Vulnerable Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii), a western Madagascar endemic; Sambirano Woolly Lemur (Avahi unicolor), a northwestern Madagascar endemic; Pale-forked crown lemur (Phaner pallescens), endemic to western Madagascar; Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius); and Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

Bats occurring here are the Near Threatened Malagasy rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), a cave rooster capable of navigating the airspace of rather dense intact forest; Vulnerable Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum); Near Threatened Commerson's roundleaf bat (Hipposideros commersonii); Near threatened long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi); Rufous trident bat (Triaenops rufus); Malagasy giant mastiff bat (Otomops madagascariensis), a Madagascar endemic; Malagasy White-bellied Free-tailed Bat (Mops leucostigma), endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros islands of Anjouan and Moheli; Malagasy slit-faced bat (Nycteris madagascariensis), a narrow endemic to the Irodo River Valley in northern Madagascar; Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus); Trouessart's trident bat (Triaenops furculus), endemic to Madagascar and the outer Seychelles atolls; Manavi Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus manavi), endemic to Madagascar and Comoros; Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon leucogaster); Robust yellow bat (Scotophilus robustus); Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Suncus madagascariensis); and Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka). Flying foxes found in the ecoregion are: Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), an important seed disperser who mates whilst hanging upside down.

Other mammals found in the ecoregion are the Madagascan pygmy shrew (Suncus madagascariensis); The only Rodentia member in the ecoregion is the Dormouse tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus myoxinus).

There are a limited number of reptilian taxa found in the Madagascar mangroves: Snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus boutonii); and aquatic apex predator Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Some sea turtles, primarily green turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN) and Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR), nest along the western coast within the Madagascar mangroves. The declining species Dugong (Dugong dugong, VU) is also found in the mangroves.

There is only one amphibian species present in the Madagascar mangroves: Mascarene ridged frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis).

There is particularly high diversity among the fish populations in the Madagascar mangroves,the families of which include: Mugelidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Gerridae, Hemiramphidae, Plectrorhynchidae and Elopidae. The neighboring coral reefs that are associated with the mangroves have also been noted for extremely high fish diversity.

  • C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
  • Hughes, R.H. & Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. UUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2880329493
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
An inhabitant of dry deciduous forest and humid forest containing stands of bamboo and areas of bamboo vines (Tattersall 1982). The species also occurs in marginal, degraded habitats in the Sambirano River valley, as well as in patches of bamboo surrounded by agricultural land and rice fields (Rakotonarivo et al. 2011, Razanatsila 2012). It is reported as being active mainly at night, with groups of six individuals recorded (Mutschler and Tan 2003). Individuals have been observed eating fruits, bamboo and liana flowers. In the northern highland regions of Marojejy and Tsaratanana the bamboo species Ochlandra capitata, Phyllostachys aurea, and Dendrocalamus giganteus are an important food source. The birth season is roughly October–January, following a gestation of 137–140 days (Pollock 1986, Tan 2000). Single infants are the rule, and the interbirth interval is typically one year.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.

Reviewer/s
Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of ≥30% over a period of 24 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.

History
  • 2000
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
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Population

Population
Densities are 50 individuals/km2 in Nosy Faly peninsula, and 71 individuals/km2 in Manongarivo Special reserve (Rakotonarivo et al. 2011).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened mainly by habitat loss due to the regular burning of forest to clear pasture for livestock; charcoal production in the west, and mining in Ankarana. Hunting is also a major threat; in Makira, hunting takes place using slingshots, machetes, and firearms. Note that the species is able to survive in degraded habitats, however the presence of bamboo is essential to survival. Slash-and-burn and destruction of the bamboo land therefore constitute the gravest threat to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is reported to occur in eight national parks (Ankarana, Baie de Baly, Mananara-Nord, Marojejy, Masoala, Sahamalaza-Iles Radama, Tsingy de Namoroka, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Tsaratanana and Zahamena), and eight special reserves (Ambatovaky, Analamerana, Anjanaharibe-Sud, Bemarivo, Kasijy, Maningoza, Manongarivo, and Marotandrano) (Nicoll and Langrand 1989, Schmid and Smolker 1998, Hawkins et al. 1998, Thalmann et al. 1999, Randrianarisoa et al. 2001, C. P. Groves pers. comm., Rabarivola et al. 2007, C. Schwitzer, pers. obs.). Recent surveys, however, did not encounter any animals in Analemarana or Ankarana, but only in a single single patch of unprotected forest in the corridor that connects these reserves (Banks 2005). Although the majority of the population of this species apparently exist in protected areas, a greater number of its population live in unprotected sites where other species of lemurs also inhabit. There should be a specific conservation strategy for marginal habitats to save bamboo trees, thus, to ensure the survival of the species’ population. As of 2010, there was a small, non-breeding population of around 18 in various European zoos (C. Schwitzer pers. obs., I. J. Porton pers. comm.).
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Wikipedia

Western lesser bamboo lemur

The western lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis), also known as the northern bamboo lemur or western gentle lemur, is species of bamboo lemur endemic to Madagascar. The total length of this primate is 55–67 cm, more than half of which is tail, and average weight is just under 1 kg.[4] It lives in several discontinuous areas in northern and western Madagascar, including Ankarana[5] and Analamerana in the north, Sambirano and the Ampasindava Peninsula in the northwest, and various areas in the west between the Mahavany and Tsiribihina Rivers.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Andriaholinirina, N. et al. (2014). "Hapalemur occidentalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  2. ^ "Checklist of CITES Species". CITES. UNEP-WCMC. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 116–117. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  4. ^ a b Mittermeier, Russell et al. (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar, Second Edition. p. 220. 
  5. ^ Wilson, Jane (1995). Lemurs of the Lost World: exploring the forests and Crocodile Caves of Madagascar. Impact, London. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-874687-48-1. 
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