Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in southeastern coastal Madagascar. The southernmost of the Bamboo Lemurs, the type locality is the forestry station of Mandena, located approximately 10 km north of Tolagnaro in far southern Madagascar (Warter and Tattersall 1994). The precise range is a little unclear, but it ranges at least from Andohahela north to the Mananara River. Rabarivola et al. (2007) noted that an animal from Atsimo appeared to be a heterozygote between this species and H. griseus. In Andohahela animals were observed at 1,500 m, but were absent at higher elevations (Feistner and Schmid 1999).Upper elevation limit unclear as animals from 1,600 m on the Andringitra Massif are now either H. meridionalis or hybrids between H. griseus and H. meridionalis. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be less than 14,370 km2.


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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

An inhabitant of subtropical moist lowland and montane forest (up to 1,600 m). The species is believed to be cathemeral and lives in groups ranging from 4 to 7 individuals, sometimes with more than one breeding female. At Kalambatritra Special Reserve and Mandena, individuals exhibit latrine behaviour (repeated group defecation at specific sites); groups defecate in turn, with adults going first followed by juveniles. It is thought that this likely serves some communicatory function, possibly for demarcating territory (Eppley and Donati 2010).

Groups from Mandena have been observed to spend significant amounts of time on the ground, foraging terrestrially on various grass species (Poaceae spp.) within the forest, in open-canopy areas, and within swamp areas (Eppley and Donati 2009, Eppley et al. 2011). These flooded forest and marsh habitats appear to be important for the individuals populating the littoral coastal forest, with groups even observed in the reed marshes along the estuaries by Evahtra.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B1ab(i,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.

Reviewer/s
Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
The extent of occurrence (EOO) of this species covers less than 14,370 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat. The number of mature individuals is also known to be in decline. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.
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Population

Population
The population size of this species is not known. However, the number of mature individuals is suspected to be in decline due to habitat loss.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats

The principal threat is habitat loss due to slash and burn agriculture, illegal timber extraction, charcoal production, and for mining of titanium. Hunting is also a threat, with locals targeting this species as it appears to crop-raid often in agricultural areas.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species is known to occur in three national parks (Andohahela, Andringitra and Midongy du Sud), three special reserves (Kalambatritra, Manombo and Pic d' Ivohibe), Tsitongambarika Protected Area, and in the Mandena Conservation Zone, east of Tolagnaro (Feistner and Schmid 1999, Rabarivola et al. 2007, P.C. Wright pers. comm.). As of 2010, this species was not being kept in captivity (I.J. Porton pers. comm.).

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Wikipedia

Southern lesser bamboo lemur

The southern lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis), also known as the southern bamboo lemur, rusty-gray bamboo lemur, and southern gentle lemur, is species of bamboo lemur endemic to southern Madagascar near Tôlanaro. It was originally proposed as a subspecies of the eastern lesser bamboo lemur and is of similar size.[3] However, it is darker and redder than the eastern lesser bamboo lemur, with a shorter tail and different vocalizations.[3] The type locality is Mandena, and it is believed to inhabit moist lowland and montane forests.[3]

The southern lesser bamboo lemur is further supported as a separate species by recent mitochondrial DNA research.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 116. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. (2014). "Hapalemur meridionalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  3. ^ a b c Mittermeier, Russell, et al. (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar, Second Edition. p. 226. 
  4. ^ Fausser, J., Donati, G., Ramanamanjato, J. and Rumpler, Y. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences". BMC Evol Biol. 2: 4. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-2-4. PMC 101410. PMID 11914128. 
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