Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs only in south-eastern Madagascar in a thin strip of forest that runs from the Manampatrana River south to the Mananara River. An isolated population of this species occurs in the Manombo Special Reserve and in Mahabo Forest south of Farafangana. Recent analyses of Landsat imagery estimate that total habitat remaining within this species’ range is less than 700 km² (Johnson and Wyner 2000; Irwin et al. 2005). South-east of the Andringitra Massif, there is a 60 km wide hybrid zone between what is now E. rufifrons and E. cinereiceps at the Iantara River (headwaters of the Manampatrana), characterized by high density of figs and a high density of hybrid lemurs (58 /km²; Irwin et al. 2005). Ranges from 20-1,500 m.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in forest habitats. Three social groups with six to 11 individuals were identified at Mahabo, and two social groups of four to eight individuals were recorded at Manombo (Johnson et al. 2008). According to Johnson (2002), it is mainly frugivorous, its diet supplemented with leaves, flowers, and fungi. Flowers are an especially important food item late in the dry season. Their low densities are probably related to the poor availability of suitable fruit trees. This species more than others appears to have a more fission-fusion grouping pattern.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered as the species has a range of only 700 km², it is fragmented, and there is ongoing decline in extent, area and quality of habitat, as well as in the numbers of mature individuals due to hunting.

History
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
  • 1996
    Endangered
  • 1994
    Vulnerable
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
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Population

Population
In the Manombo Special Reserve and Manombo Classified Forest, there are an estimated 60 mature individuals (J. Ratsimbazafy pers. comm.). Irwin et al. (2005) give a density estimate in Vevembe of 10 individuals/km²; however, south of this there is blackwater, white sand, low-productivity forest where densities will be lower. These authors determined a maximum population estimate of 7,265+/-2,268 individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Selective logging, hunting and the continued conversion of rain forest habitat to agricultural land are the greatest threats to the survival of the white-collared lemur. It is trapped easily by hunters during the fruiting season of the strawberry guava (Psidium cattlianum) in Manombo (J. Ratsimbazafy pers. comm.). In the rest of its range it is hunted with shotguns, snares and slingshots particularly when it comes into coffee plantations.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is found in the Manombo Special Reserve; animals in the Andringitra National Park are mostly hybrids with E. rufifrons. Recent surveys have identified populations in unprotected forests (Vevembe and Lambohazo) that could be added to existing parks and reserves (Johnson and Overdorff 1999). Preservation of the corridor between Andrinitra and the current range, which includes the hybrid zone between E. rufifrons and E. cinereiceps, is a priority. The Missouri Botanical Garden is also presently active in managing and upgrading the protected status of the littoral forest of Mahabo. As of 2007, this species was reported from four zoological collections (Mittermeier et al. 2008).
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Wikipedia

Gray-headed lemur

The gray-headed lemur (Eulemur cinereiceps), or gray-headed brown lemur, is a medium-sized primate, a cathemeral species of lemur in the Lemuridae family. Until a taxonomic revision in 2008, it was known as the white-collared brown lemur or white-collared lemur (Eulemur albocollaris).[2] It lives in south-eastern Madagascar.[3] In 2005, satellite imagery estimates showed approximately 700 km2 (270 sq mi) of total remaining habitat within its geographic range.[4] It is highly threatened by hunting and habitat loss, and was considered to be among the 25 most endangered primates in 2006–2008.[5] It is currently listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) due to a highly restricted range,[3] and has been named one of "The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates."[6]

The gray-headed lemur is only found in southeastern Madagascar, from the Manampatrana River south to the Mananara River.[4][7]

Change in taxonomy[edit]

Recent genetic and morphological evidence has suggested that the former name, E. albocollaris, was actually is a junior synonym of E. cinereiceps.[3] Consequently the common name gray-headed lemur and the scientific name Eulemur cinereiceps were resurrected to replace white-collared brown lemur and E. albocollaris respectively.[2][8]

Previously, this species was listed as a subspecies of the common brown lemur until elevated to species status in 2001. However, genetic and field studies still support subspecies status under the biological species concept.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Mittermeier, R., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Glander, K., Tattersall, I., Groves, C., Rylands, A., Hapke, A., Ratsimbazafy, J., Mayor, M., Louis, E., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C. & Rasoloarison, R. (December 2008). "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology 29 (6): 1607–1656. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9317-y. 
  3. ^ a b c d Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. (2014). "Eulemur cinereiceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  4. ^ a b c Ganzhorn, J., et al. (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar (2nd ed.). Conservation International. pp. 251 & 280. ISBN 1-881173-88-7. 
  5. ^ Mittermeier, R., Ratsimbazafy, J., Rylands, A. B., Williamson, L., Oates, J. F., Mbora, D., Ganzhorn, J. U., Rodríguez-Luna, E., Palacios, E., Heymann, E. W., Kierulff, M. C. M., Yongcheng, L., Supriatna, J., Roos, C., Walker, S., & Aguiar, J. M. (2007). "Primates in Peril: The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2006–2008". Primate Conservation 22: 1–40. doi:10.1896/052.022.0101. 
  6. ^ Mittermeier, R.A.; Wallis, J.; Rylands, A.B.; Ganzhorn, J.U.; Oates, J.F., eds. (2009). Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2008–2010 (PDF). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. Arlington, VA: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI). pp. 1–92. ISBN 978-1-934151-34-1. 
  7. ^ Garbutt (2007). Mammals of Madagascar, A Complete Guide. A&C Black Publishers. pp. 163–4. ISBN 978-0-300-12550-4. 
  8. ^ Johnson, S. E., Lei, R., Martins, S. K., Irwin, M. T., & Louis, E. E. (2008). "Does Eulemur cinereiceps Exist? Preliminary Evidence From Genetics and Ground Surveys in Southeastern Madagascar". American Journal of Primatology 70 (4): 372–385. doi:10.1002/ajp.20501. PMID 18027864. 
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