Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Male SVL ranges from 22.5 mm to 27.3 mm, while the single female specimen is larger at 33.5 mm. The head is about as broad as long, with canthal, supraorbital, supratympanic, and parietal crests. Skin on top of the head is co-ossified with the underlying cranial bones. In the female specimen the cranial crests are more robust than in the males. The snout is acutely pointed, with protuberant nostrils directed laterally. The distinct canthus rostralis forms a well-developed canthal crest with a concave loreal region. The lip is indistinct. A distinct "V" shaped notch is present at the mandibular symphysis. The tympanum is not externally evident, although a well-developed supratympanic crest is present. Triangular parotoid glands are barely evident. Body shape is robust. Dorsal skin texture appears roughened with numerous distinctly raised, rounded or pointed tubercles, though skin on mid-dorsum is nearly smooth with tubercles more widely scattered. Lateral surfaces of the body and dorsal surfaces of the limbs and flanks are also scattered with small sharply pointed tubercles. The scapular area has fewer tubercles and appears smoother in texture than adjacent areas. Lateral rows of tubercles are distinctly larger and more sharply pointed than nearby tubercles. The skin of the ventral body and limbs is mildly granular with distinctly raised, small, round scattered tubercles; the throat is more evenly granular. Palms and soles are smooth. The choanae are subcircular, small and widely spaced. This species has a long, ovoid tongue approximately three times as long as wide and 2/3 free posteriorly. The forelimbs are slender and short, with broad hands and broad, short fingers. The relative lengths of the fingers are I = II = IV < III. The fingers are mostly webbed, with the webbing formula I0 - 0II0 - 3III3 - 0IV. Palmar and pollical tubercles are not evident on the hands. The hindlimbs are also slender and short, and lack tarsal folds. The relative lengths of the short, broad toes are I = II < III < V < IV. The inner metatarsal tubercle is not evident, while the outer metatarsal tubercle is distinct, low and ovoid. The toes are mostly webbed, in the pattern I0 - 0II0 - 0III0 - 3III3 - 0IV. Teeth and ostia pharyngea are absent from this species. Males also lack vocal sacs, vocal slits, and nuptial excrescences (Vaughan and Mendelson 2007).

In preservative, all dorsal surfaces of the body and head are pale brown with distinct irregular dark brown markings including a dark brown interorbital bar. The tips of the largest dorsal tubercles are unpigmented. Limbs have alternating cream and brown crossbars. Hands and feet are mostly unpigmented dorsally with a few scattered dark brown spots. The lip surface is distinctly white although a few small brown bars are present. The ventral surfaces of the body are characterized by a dull brown scattered with a few irregular cream markings that become larger and more contiguous peripherally. Pelvic region is dull brown with distinct cream-colored markings. Ventral surfaces of the limbs, hands, and feet are dull brown with cream-colored markings (Vaughan and Mendelson 2007).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vaughan, A. and Calvo, W. (2003). ''Geographic distribution: Crepidophryne epiotica.'' Herpetological Review, 34, 257.
  • Vaughan, A. and Mendelson, J.R. III (2007). ''Taxonomy and ecology of the Central American toads of the genus Crepidophryne (Anura: Bufonidae).'' Copeia, 2007(2), 304-314.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from several localities (including Los Juncos 1,500 to 1,600m asl) near Cascajal, on the Cerro Chompipe, and from the Reserva Dantas in the Cordillera Central in central Costa Rica (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).
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Distribution and Habitat

Endemic to Costa Rica. This species inhabits areas near Cascajal (including Los Juncos at elevations of 1,500 m to 1,600 m asl), Cerro Chompipe and Reserva Dantas in the Cordillera Central region of central Costa Rica (Vaughan and Mendelson 2007). Individuals have been found in deep leaf litter areas of primary or mature cloudforest with closed canopy (Vaughan and Calvo 2003).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vaughan, A. and Calvo, W. (2003). ''Geographic distribution: Crepidophryne epiotica.'' Herpetological Review, 34, 257.
  • Vaughan, A. and Mendelson, J.R. III (2007). ''Taxonomy and ecology of the Central American toads of the genus Crepidophryne (Anura: Bufonidae).'' Copeia, 2007(2), 304-314.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Animals have been recorded from primary or mature cloudforest with a closed canopy (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It appears to be associated with deep leaf litter (Vaughn and Calvo, 2003; Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). It is possible that this species undergoes direct development, however this requires further investigations (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
D2

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Eduardo Boza, Federico Bolaños, Gerado Chaves

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Vulnerable because it is known from only two locations containing multiple localities. There are currently no threats recognised for the species, however the potential for future habitat degradation and loss with the species restricted range is plausible.
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Population

Population
Vaughn and Mendelson (2007), mention that this is generally a rare toad with a few individuals being recorded along trails. However it is reported to be generally common by other researchers (five to seven animals encountered daily) (Eduardo Boza pers. comm. 2007).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There appears to be no definite habitat loss ongoing or predicted within the range of this species. However, while it is not certain, the possibility remains that part of the habitat within the range of this species could be degraded through the expansion of housing from the city of San José (Federico Bolaños pers. comm. 2007).
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This species occurs within two protected areas in Costa Rica: Reserva Dantas in the Districto Los Angeles, Canton San Rafael and Los Juncos, which is part of a Forestry Reserve (Vaughan and Mendelson 2007). Potential future threats include urbanization due to the expansion of the city of San José (Stuart et al. 2008).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vaughan, A. and Calvo, W. (2003). ''Geographic distribution: Crepidophryne epiotica.'' Herpetological Review, 34, 257.
  • Vaughan, A. and Mendelson, J.R. III (2007). ''Taxonomy and ecology of the Central American toads of the genus Crepidophryne (Anura: Bufonidae).'' Copeia, 2007(2), 304-314.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It has been recorded from the Reserva Dantas in the Districto Los Angeles, Canton San Rafael (Vaughn and Mendelson, 2007). Los Juncos is part of a Forestry Reserve (Eduardo Boza pers. comm. 2007).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Crepidophryne chompipe produces skin secretions which are capable of inflicting notable irritation to human eyes (Vaughan and Calvo 2003).

  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Vaughan, A. and Calvo, W. (2003). ''Geographic distribution: Crepidophryne epiotica.'' Herpetological Review, 34, 257.
  • Vaughan, A. and Mendelson, J.R. III (2007). ''Taxonomy and ecology of the Central American toads of the genus Crepidophryne (Anura: Bufonidae).'' Copeia, 2007(2), 304-314.
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Wikipedia

Crepidophryne chompipe

Crepidophryne chompipe is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family, known from several localities near Cascajal in the Cerro Chompipe, and in the Reserva Dantas in the Cordillera Central of Costa Rica.
Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

References

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