DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionWe are following here the taxonomy and proposed distributions of Silva Jr (2001). The taxonomic arrangement proposed by Groves (2001) was discussed by Rylands et al. (2005), especially in relation to the work of Torres de AssumpÃ§Ã£o (1983). It was not possible to delimit the ranges of the subspecies he recognized, but those of the species were mapped in Fragaszy et al. (2004).
The range of Cebus macocephalus described here includes those of the following taxa recognized by Groves (2001): C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766) from Colombia, C. a. peruanus Thomas, 1901 from Peru; 1939, C. libidinosus juruanus LÃ¶nnberg, 1939 (in part) from the upper Rio JuruÃ¡. Cebus apella maranonis Von Pusch, 1941, recognized by Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1994), is considered by Silva Jr. (2001) to be a junior synonym of C. macrocephalus, and by Groves (2001) to be a junior synonym of C. a . peruanus.
For Colombia, Defler (2004) described its range as follows: the entire Colombian Amazon, and all of the piedmont forest at least to 1,300 m above sea level, east of the Cordilleras, with the exception of some eastern areas such eastern Vichada and upper Cahuinari. It is also absent from much of the Colombian trapezium. C. macrocephalus (which he referred to as C. apella) is found also in upper valley of the RÃo Magdalena in Huila, up to 2,700 m above sea level (in the region of San AgustÃn) and the region of Tierradentro in Cacua to elevations of about 2,500 m (close to InzÃ¡). Following Silva Jr. (2001), C. macrocephalus extends east to the RÃo Orinoco (C. apella is the form in the Venezuelan Amazon), occurring along the right bank of the Rio Negro to approximately SÃ£o Gabriel Cachoeira where it is range is then delimited by a line approximately SSE across the Negro-SolimÃµes interfluvium to the region of CoarÃ (on the SolimÃµes) and then extending across the basin of the Rio Purus to the junction of the RÃos Madre Dios and GuaporÃ©. From there its southern range is delimited by the Madre de Dios in Bolivia (C. apella occurs to the south of the Madre de Dios) west into Peru. Following Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n (1994) its range then takes on all of the Peruvian Amazon north of the Rio Madre de Dios, but extending across the river to the south beyond the mouth of the RÃo Inambari (a southern tributary of the Madre de Dios). In Peru, C. macrocephalus (sensu Silva Jr, 2001) has been recorded at altitudes up to 1,800 m above sea level (Aquino and EncarnaciÃ³n 1994).