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Range DescriptionA poorly known howler monkey, its range has been elucidated recently through the efforts of the Centro de Proteção de Primatas Brasileiros of the Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Paraíba (Oliveira et al. 2004). It occurs along coastal north-east Brazil in three states: Maranhão, Piauí and Ceará. The type locality is Miritiba, now called Humberto de Campos, on the coast of Maranhão, which it would seem marks the western limit to the range, just east of Rio Itapecurú. Besides the type locality, Bonvicino et al. (1989) mapped Boa Vista, just east of the lower Rio Parnaíba in Maranhão (locality 9, map Figure 2, Table 2); Goiabeira, Granja (locality 5) near the coast on the left (west) bank of the mouth of the Rio Coreaú in Ceará, and Bom Jardim, São Benedito (locality 4) in the Serra da Ibiapaba. Oliveira et al. (2004) indicated the Serra da Ibiapaba as the eastern limit to the species’ range. Guedes et al. (2000) registred two further localities in the Serra da Ibiapaba in the municipality Ibiapina. Oliveira et al. (2004; pers. comm.) have found that it occurs further south than was previously recognized, extending at least to the Rio Poti in Piauí.