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Range DescriptionA poorly known howler monkey, its range has been elucidated recently through the efforts of the Centro de ProteÃ§Ã£o de Primatas Brasileiros of the Instituto Chico Mendes de ConservaÃ§Ã£o da Biodiversidade, ParaÃba (Oliveira et al. 2004). It occurs along coastal north-east Brazil in three states: MaranhÃ£o, PiauÃ and CearÃ¡. The type locality is Miritiba, now called Humberto de Campos, on the coast of MaranhÃ£o, which it would seem marks the western limit to the range, just east of Rio ItapecurÃº. Besides the type locality, Bonvicino et al. (1989) mapped Boa Vista, just east of the lower Rio ParnaÃba in MaranhÃ£o (locality 9, map Figure 2, Table 2); Goiabeira, Granja (locality 5) near the coast on the left (west) bank of the mouth of the Rio CoreaÃº in CearÃ¡, and Bom Jardim, SÃ£o Benedito (locality 4) in the Serra da Ibiapaba. Oliveira et al. (2004) indicated the Serra da Ibiapaba as the eastern limit to the speciesâ range. Guedes et al. (2000) registred two further localities in the Serra da Ibiapaba in the municipality Ibiapina. Oliveira et al. (2004; pers. comm.) have found that it occurs further south than was previously recognized, extending at least to the Rio Poti in PiauÃ.